Question;

 

FORMATTING REQUIREMENTS: All briefs should be Times New Roman, 12-point font, with 1” margins and double-spaced. Proper ASA citation is required for all quotes and textual references (see ASA citation guide on GauchoSpace).  Briefs should be 5-6 pages. In the interests of saving paper, no separate cover page or works cited page is needed; rather, just list your references wherever your essay ends (i.e. this can be on the same page as the last page of your essay). Proper ASA citation is required for all quote and textual reference. Using key quotes from the readings throughout your brief is expected and will influence your overall score. All questions below must be answered in essay form.                                    (30 pts)

  1. Week 3’s readings and film addressed many different aspects/debates pertaining to the medical/psychiatric institutional management of trans identity, transitioning, and body modification. Please discuss at least three (3) of these aspects/debates as they relate to: the normativizing trends of the establishment, particularly historically; the “pros/cons” of the GID diagnosis; “gatekeepers,” professional authority, and patient agency; race/ethnicity and class; non-binary identities and embodiments; heteronormativity and sexuality; body modification practices in general, “trans” and “non-trans.” Your answer must explicitly draw on Califia, Patrick. (2003) “Trashing the Clinic and Burning Down the Beauty Parlor: Activism Transmutes Pitiable Patients into Feisty Gender Radicals” in sex Change: Transgender Polotics, 2nd Ed, Spade, Dean. (2006) “Mutilating Gender.” and the film Diagnosing Difference.
  2. In your own words, but drawing on key quotes from Rupp, Leila. 2001. “Toward a global History of Same-sex Sexuality.” what is Rupp’s main point about the term “same-sex sexuality”?  What is potentially misleading or problematic about it, especially in terms of global history and cultures (how do race, class, culture, age relate)?  Please provide three (3) relevant cultural examples from the reading to buttress your response.
  3. In your own words, but drawing on key quotes from Valentine, David. 2007. Selections from Imagining Transgender: Ethnography of a Category. What is Valentine’s main point about “gender” and “sexuality”? How does he challenge the ways in which “mainstream” LGBT activism and politics conceptualize these aspects of human social experience and identity? Please draw on “Paris is Burning” and “Two Spirits”(film) where relevant
  4. In your own words, but drawing on key quotes from Lamble, Sarah, 2008. “ Retelling Racialized Violence, Remarking White Innocence: The Politics of Interlocking Oppressions in Transgender Day of Remembrance.” what is Lamble’s main point about TDOR? Your answer should include a clear explanation of the concept of intersectionality. Please draw on “Paris is Burning ( film)and Two Spirits) where relevant.
  5. Synthesis: How do the overall points of the above three authors/readings relate (2-4)? What do they make us think about: (trans) gender identity, sexuality, homophobia, transphobia, race and ethnicity, class, cultural context, intersectionality and social constructionism?

Answer;

1.

Gender identity disorder is apparent to individuals that identify themselves with opposite sex. The condition affects both children and adults. In many cases, the affected individuals develop identity disorder where they ten d to act as members of the opposite sex. Affected adults have a tendency of altering their bodies with a primary intention of joining the opposite sex. The disorder may pose psychological disorder to the affected individuals in the sense that it may alter normal behavior dressing codes, mannerism. Some individuals go for transexual process administered through hormones, cosmetics, and surgery. Spade explains that transexualism pose threats to the affected individuals. To mention Spade illustrate that doctors carrying out the transexualism surgeries perform the process to gain fame and wealth. Additionally, the process is influenced by both medical and regulations perspective. However, medical practitioners argue that transexualism plays an instrumental role in helping the affected individual gin gender performance and addressing cases of gender violations.

People have specific goals when going for non-trans masculinity and felinity. For instance, some individuals alter their bodies to look distinct in terms of clothing, sexual practices, disruption of male and female codes, and develop distinct sexual practices. Occasionally, people see bodies theoretically and gender expectations and fictions mediate self-image of everyone (Califia, 2003)). Apparently, trans individuals fail to imagine themselves as real woman or real man. The major pros of transformation include acquiring pleasures, ability to conform to gender norms and individuals gain self-images and understanding. However, much as transexualism appears to create pleasure to the affected individuals, experience significant challenges. Patients demand desired surgeries for personal reasons forcing physians to punish honesty other than complying with surgery evaluations.

Implications emanate when a woman transforms into male gender in the society. Transsexuals cannot possibly transform fact tht gently since real gender is what other people can see from a transsexual. Occasionally, transsexual women find themselves in situations where other men treat them like women other than real men (Spade, 2006).

2.

Rupp perceive sex sameness in historical context. In her article, she mentions a number of distinct illustrations sexual acts around the globe. She describes that same se can be possibly be viewed as same-sex domination. In other words,  Rupp believes that same-sex is influenced by domination other describing same sex in terms sexual acts involving similar genitals. Rupp defines same sex beyond popular terms such as lesbianism, gays, and queers or even homosexuals. He emphasizes that same-sex sexuality should be viewed as complications influenced by acts, desires, and relationships.

Rupp implies that class difference, age difference, and gender difference should be included when defining same sexualism. To illustrate, Rupp mentions that the Athenian society viewed age difference between older and younger men played a role in sex acts. Apparently, adult male in the Athenian society penetrated inferior members of the society including slaves, foreigners, boys, and women. Men enjoyed the privilege influencing them to feel like penetrating any inferior member of the society.

Things are a bit different with the modern society. Same-sex in the modern society is highly influenced by individual desires but not class or ethnicity perceptive as it was the case with the early modern Europe.         In the Athenian society, different-age and same-sex exhibited existing relationship. In the contemporary society, same sex exists between people of the same social status, age group, and similar of similar ethnic group (Rupp 2001).

3.

Valentine argues that non-normative gendered and sexual identities affect relationships between lesbian, gay, bisexuals, and transgender. Valentine view the perspective of gender and sexuality in terms of social constructionist. Transgender in the United Sates gained prominence in the kick off of 1990’s. In the social and activist perspectives, transgender as viewed as a way of defining gender variance in the United States. According to Valentine, transgender clarifies model of sexuality and gender. The model of sexuality and gender has attracted perspectives of lesbian politics, mainstream gays, psychiatry, and feminism since 1970’s. The paradigm of sexuality and gender are distinct in human experience

Valentine challenge of politics and activism as by implying that rises out of realignment other than collectivity. Previously, feminism, activists, lesbian, and gay movements provided precedents movement, and models that resemble political perspective. Valentine further argues that transgender can be facilitated through broadening the vision of social justice. The broader vision should also include a significant level of attentiveness, and simultaneous language politics. Additionally, broader political economies, and theoretical models fail to acknowledge concepts of lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transsexual.

Argument raised by Valentine coincides with the plot of the film Paris is Burning. The film portrays how different gender identities respond to distinct forms of expression. The movie depict Drag as controversial performance of race, class, and gender where an individual gets an opportunity to take part in expressing desires, identity, and inspirations. Minor groups n the united Sates such as Latino and African-American played a role portraying gender presentations and identities where gay characters intermingled with transgender women (Livingston, 1991).

The movie, Two Spirits consider ender identities and homosexulity as modern concepts. Character played by Navajo plays an instrumental role in depicting how existence of masculine man and feminine woman, male-bodied person existing as feminine, and female-bodied possessing masculine characteristics. The climax of the film entails how challenging Western tradition could deal with gender acceptance. The argument raised by the plot of the film coincides with argument raised by Valentine concerning political and activist concepts of LGBT as far as human identity is concerned.

4.

Lamble portrays that Transgender Day of Remembrance is an essential event in the history of the United Sates. The day is set to honor people killed since it acknowledges people killed because of taking part in resisting violence against violence advanced against gender variant people. However, Lamble argues that TDOR is no longer a necessary event that Americans should consider commemorating in recent days. The project obscures social, historical, and political context of violence as well raising controversies over excluding the needed resistance against racial prejudice. In fact, Lamble the campaign fails to raise the simple awareness of power structure that paves away to the violence. Additionally, the remembering the event raises concerns over political perspective. The fact is that the event is more like a narrative that come at a high cost. Therefore, Lamble wishes that academics and activists should take initiatives interrogating logic of political narrative.

A review of the film Paris is Burning portrays some logic arguments on Lamble view regarding TODR. The movie features how Latino and African-American community are subjects to racism, poverty, homophobia, and AIDS. Therefore, an event such as TODR would not portray its usefulness without dressing adverse issues portrayed in the move Paris is Burning. Issues depicted in the movie should not be politicized in a way that it would fail to comprehensively address issues pertaining sex workers and minority group in the United States. Similarly, a review of the film Two Spirits would support claims raised by Lamble.  Apparently, it makes logic sense that the plot of themovie provides an opportunity to Native American t alter their perceptions regarding sexuality dichotomy. In other words, TODR fails to address crucial issues such as viewing sexual dichotomy in broader way. The event fails to acknowledge the four gender roles in context of racism.

5.

The three authors Lamble, Dean and Rupp depicts discuses in depth issues concerning transgender identity, sexuality, race, transphobia, class, social constructionist, and race and ethnicity. Dean makes the reader believe that issues related to transgender identity trace its roots from cultural perspective. Issues such as race, ethnicity, and class played instrumental role in propelling cases of same sex. The author further makes readers develop the mentality that age difference highly contributed to cases of transgender identity in ancient societies.

Dean further portray that sexuality of an individual is determined by relationships and personal desires of a person. Sexual minorities, Sexual diverse such as lesbians, gays, and bisexuals, and transexual people put effort of altering their status to feel part of the society. Scholarly writer Rupp discuses issues concerning negligence portrayed towards minority group. Issues such as race, sexuality, and ethnicity are yet to be adequately addressed by the politicians during holding the TODR events. Scholarly writer Lamble discuses issues related to social constructionism, race, and ethnicity as the major contributing factors to an individual sexuality. The modern world and the ancient world share some similar idealism regarding individual’s sexualism.

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