Question;

Search the Internet and find the American nurses association standards of care of public health nursing practice and also research article regarding the standards and write short notes about the standard of care.

Content

Introduction

The body:

  • Standards of care of public health nursing practice (around 1100 words)..
  • Summary of article about standards on your own wards (one page around 350 words) ..

Conclusion:

  • Summary about assignment on your own words (150 words)..

Reference (APA format ).

Attach full article

Answer;

Introduction

Public health nursing practice is one of the specialties in the field of public health that focuses on enhancing population health. It also involves advocacy, development of policies , planning and social justice issues. Public health nursing is implemented through theory application in the community and commitment to promote health equity. The main elements of public health nursing practice include focus on the population’s health care needs, population health assessment using a systematic and comprehensive approach, emphasis on primary prevention of illness as it attends to diverse health determinants and application of interventions at family, individual and community levels including the systems that significantly impact on the population health. There are several Standards of care of public health nursing practice stipulated by the American Nurses Association (2007) which aim at regulating the practice of public health nursing.

The Standards of care of public health nursing practice

Standard 1: Assessment

According to the American Nurses Association (2007), a public health nurse is responsible for the collection of comprehensive data that is relevant to the population’s health status. The nurses should regularly conduct community health care needs assessment and make sure that relevant strategies are put in place to meet each individual’s health care needs such as facilitating for regular screening for illnesses such as cervical cancer, breast cancer, hypertension, diabetes and sexually transmitted diseases among others. Collection of data pertaining the health status of the community members based on the screening results help in monitoring trends in the population health and provides a basis for assessing the effectiveness of the interventions of health promotion on improvement of the population health (ANA, 2007).

Standard 2: Population Diagnosis and Priorities

It is the role of the public health nurse to analyze population health assessment data in order to determine population priorities and diagnoses. Following a comprehensive assessment of the community health care needs, the public health nurses in collaboration with other health care professionals such as the physicians strategize on how to address the identified health issues in priority order. They may decide to address issues starting from the most critical or one with the highest prevalence. For instance, if diabetes is found to have the highest prevalence and incidence,  it should be addressed first by creating plans to ensure that the affected people receive the medical attention they deserve. The second leading health problem should be addressed next and a plan created for the same (ANA, 2007).

Standard 3: Outcome identification

A public health nurse is expected to identify the expected outcomes for plans strategized on the basis of diagnoses and priorities of population health. While creating plans to address the most critical population health issues in order of priority, it is important for the public health nurse to clearly identify the expected outcome of the plans. This helps in guiding intervention actions of the nurses and ultimately help in achieving the expected outcomes. Without prior identification of the expected outcomes, it might be difficult to achieve the intended goals hence failure to promote good population health. For instance, if the public health nurses create a plan to address high prevalence of diabetes, they can indicate the expected outcome of their plan as reduced incidences of diabetes in a specified time period (ANA, 2007).

Standard 4: Planning

A public health nurse is responsible for the development of plans that reflect the best nursing practices through action plans, identification of strategies and alternatives to achieve expected outcomes. Before implementing any health promotion plan, the public health nurses are expected to outline all strategies that will be applied to implement the created plan including alternatives to those plans in case unexpected risks that may inhibit implementation of the main plan occurs. This helps in management of material and human resources in a manner that can ensure that the created plans are successfully implemented. Without proper prior planning, it can be a challenge to successfully achieve the target goals of the created health promotion plans (ANA, 2007).

Standard 5: Implementation

Through partnerships with colleagues, a public health nurse is able to implement identified health care plans. Implementation of health promotion plans is the most important  aspect of achieving a healthy population. Public health nurses need to partner with other relevant multidisciplinary health care professionals to implement the identified health promotion strategies. Successful implementation of health promotion strategies is achieved through collaboration of professionals with expertise knowledge and skills  in different aspects of health promotion (ANA, 2007).

Standard 5A : Coordination

A public health nurse is expected to coordinate services, programs and other services that are required to implement identified care plans. In cases where health promotion involves the community members, the public health nurses are expected to effectively coordinate the implementation of health promotion plans and strategies in a manner that helps in the successful implementation of health promotion goals. Without proper coordination of strategies and actions, it might be difficult to achieve the intended outcomes (ANA, 2007).

Standard 5B: Health Education and Promotion

A public health nurse uses diverse strategies to prevent illness while promoting a safe environment  to promote population health. The most common strategy of population health promotion is health promotion and education. This is one of the main roles of public health nurses. Public health nurses are expected to be advocates  for public health promotion and education for systems, communities, groups and individuals with an aim of achieving health equity in the population. The nurses are expected to demonstrate high ethical practices and principles through out their profession including health education, health promotion and prevention of diseases. Health education and promotion includes activities such as through community public health lectures and forums, mass media campaigns, public service announcements, holding health fairs and communication health promotion information through newsletters. These activities focus on raising awareness among the population regarding healthy behaviors while encouraging the population to engage in wellness, disease prevention and health promotion programs that are available within the community (ANA, 2007).

Standard 5C : Consultation

A public health nurse has the capability of providing consultation services to different community groups with an aim of facilitating the implementation of public health services and programs. Public health nurses are expected to demonstrate competency in their public health promotion knowledge and skills. This qualifies them as consultants for the community members in case they need to learn about anything concerning leading healthier lifestyles. The nurses are expected to be available for the consultation needs of the community members or groups (ANA, 2007).

Standard 5 D : Regulatory Activities

A public health nurse has the responsibility of identifying, interpreting and implementing public health regulations, laws and policies. The nurses are expected to demonstrate knowledge of the existing laws, policies and regulations in every aspect of health promotion right from assessment, implementation, coordination, health promotion, consultation and evaluation among other health promotion interventions that the nurses might engage in (ANA, 2007).

Standard 6: Evaluation

A public health nurse routinely evaluates the population’s health status. Following implementation of health promotion plans and strategies, it is necessary for the public health nurses to routinely evaluate whether the strategies were successful or not. This helps in evaluating areas that went well and those that need improvement to achieve the target goal (ANA, 2007).

Article Analysis

In the article, “Nurses’ roles in health promotion practice: an integrative review”, Kemppainen, Tossavainen & Turunen (2013) acknowledge that nurses play a significant role in efforts to promote public health. This is attributed to their experience and multidisciplinary knowledge in health promotion in the context of nursing practice. Through a holistic approach of public health promotion, they focus on assisting families, individuals and the community as a whole to make healthy life decisions through provision of health education on diverse aspects such as how to prevent occurrence of illness and management of existing illness. This can be achieved through feeding on a balanced diet on a regular basis and engaging regular physical exercise. Public health nurses empower the community to live healthy lifestyles by collaborating with the community at individuals, family and group levels. Collaboration can be achieved through effective communication between the nurses and the patients. Nurses are also expected to collaborate with multidisciplinary profession to successfully achieve the plans of population health promotion. The authors also acknowledge that the nurses refer to the set health and social policies to guide their health promotion practices. Kemppainen (2013) state that the nurses’ health promotion activities should be based on recommendations such as those stipulated in the World Health Organization Charter and guidance from governmental and professional organizations.

According to the authors, public health nurses can be categorized as; general, patient-focused or project management promoters of public health. The main intervention used by nurses in public health promotion is health education. This implies that the nurses must demonstrate adequate knowledge in the aspect of health promotion,  public health policies and effective strategies of health promotion. Competency in demonstration of knowledge and skills in  effective health promotion interventions. Kemppainen (2013) emphasize that public health nurses are the project managers in health promotion hence they  should be competent in planning, implementing and evaluating the interventions of health promotion. They are expected to have advanced and professional skills in health promotion programs and relevant interventions. The authors highlight the factors that enable nurses to carry out health promotion activities. The factors include a supportive organizational culture  such as supportive supervisors, opportunities to continue their training and education, availability of resources such as adequate time and materials for health promotion and availability of trainers who can instill them with the skills and knowledge they need to be effective in their health promotion interventions.

Conclusion

The analysis of the Standards of Care of Public Health Nursing Practice as stipulated by ANA (2007) and the article written by Kemppainen (2013), show that public health nurses are expected to be at the forefront in efforts to promote population health. This is achieved through assessment, population diagnosis and priorities, outcome identification, planning, implementation, coordination, health education and health promotion, consultation and regulatory activities in the aspect of public health. The public health nurses should be able to demonstrate competency in promoting population health through practical application of  the relevant knowledge and skills in disease prevention and promotion of healthier lifestyles.

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