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Use theorist Hildegard Peplau and the Chnn & Kramer model for evaluation. if you have access to text books the ISBN #978-1-60547-211-9 (table 10-1, page 184)

This is guide lines for critique. Alternate Text Version for Critique and Analysis of Theory Review the process of theory evaluation using the table below. Critique and Analysis of Theory Topic Description Theory Evaluation Theory Evaluation • The ultimate goal is potential contribution of a theory to scientific knowledge • In nursing practice, theory evaluation may provide a clinician with additional knowledge about the soundness of the theory • In research, the process helps clarify the form and structure of a theory being tested Theory Evaluation Process: • Theory description • Theory analysis • Theory evaluation or theory critique Theory Description Theory Description • The initial step in the evaluation process • Works of the theorist are reviewed with a focus on the historical context of the theory • Related works are examined to gain further understanding Theory Analysis Theory Analysis • Second phase of the evaluation process • Refers to a systematic process by objectively examining content, structure, and function of a theory • Is non-judgmental with the primary aim to understand the theory Theory Evaluation/Critique Theory Evaluation/Critique • Also called theory critique • Final step in the process • Evaluation follows analysis and assesses the theory’s potential contribution to the discipline’s knowledge base • How is the theory used to direct nursing practice and does it contribute to favorable outcomes • The whole theory must be studied as parts of the theory without the whole will not be fully meaningful and may lead to misunderstanding

Answer;

In essence, the process of choosing a theory over another one depends on objectivity and subjectivity of the theory. Occasionally, nursing profession select a theory on a well established criteria. Such criteria range from theorist reputation, level of assumptions of theory, and goal achievement. In nursing profession human interactions and experience is complex in nature making it necessary for evaluating theory based on how it reflects contexts of human interactions and experience. The objective of the paper is to criticize theory of interpret relationship of Hildegard Peplau’s theory using Chinn and Krammer criteria.

Theorists Chinn and Krammer provide a number of inquiries to help reviewer of theories to describe theories on a basis of internal criticism and external criticism. The criteria for defining theories range from the purpose, concepts, relationships, structure, and assumptions of the theory. These criteria imply that theory should be defined in context of rigorous and creative structuring. In other words, the internal criticism model suggests that theorists have obligations should project systematic, purposeful, and tentative phenomena. A critical look of the interpersonal relationship theory implies that doctor Peplau had a purpose when she created the theory. She formulated model with a primary aim of emphasizing the need to establish patient-nurse relationship other than accomplishing doctor’s instruction alone.

The theorist further provides criteria for evolution theory on critical reflection ranging from clarity, simplicity, generalizability, accessibility, and importance of theory.

A critical look on purpose implies that Chin and Krammer base their argument in logic manner when describing Peplau’s theory. In essence, it would not make the slightest sense for target nursing professional to utilize a theory established with no purpose. For instance, it would be absurd for nursing professional to select a nursing theory that does not correspond to practice of nursing. Therefore, the inquiry serves meaningful criteria of evaluating a theory (Meleis, 2011). The criteria portray significant sense when evaluating the Peplau’s theory of interpersonal relationship. The theory provides that sharing of experience through interpretation, observation, and description would mark a revolution in nursing professional. Therefore, she had a purpose of making things right in nursing professional that made significant improvement in nursing workforce.

The question on concepts also presents a logic argument by the theorists. A theory would not perceive be operational in any professional field if fails to provide reliable guidelines to enhance professional practices. The key word in the criteria is how the theory would provide cognitive abilities and logic thoughts. A theory is factual statement that should be present acceptable existence of mental representation. The criteria present the process of objectivity of a theory. The criteria are useful in evaluating the concepts of Peplau’s theory as far as objectivity is concerned. The objective of Peplau was to see that nursing professional portray ultimate accuracy through coping with strategies, and engaging in experiential learning.

Describing theory in terms of definitions presents strong basis of evaluating a theory. Defining a theory forms a basis of analysis to target. To illustrate, nurse metatheorists pose keen interest on how theorist defines their established theories. By defining nursing theory effectively, it would accomplish mission of setting things right to target group (Meleis, 2011). In this particular case, the criteria portray high sense of Peplau’s theory to accomplish the mission of the interpersonal relations theory. Using the Chinn and Krammer criteria, the mission of the Peplau’s interpersonal theory was to create nursing personal growth. Therefore, it would be ideal to declare that Chinn and Krammer presented logic criteria as far as definition is concerned

Relationship presented by theory presents significance of theory. For instance, nursing theories should provide logic relations in the scope of nursing. A meaningful theory should reflect elations to become subjective to the target group. The criteria of relation would help define utility and significance of nursing theory in nursing field. In other words, describing theories using relationships criteria is a logic way of evaluating the degree of objectivity of a theory.

Evaluating a theory in terms of structural criteria presents some elements of logic in the sense that it defines integration of human activities. It is fact that nursing professional focuses on enhancing social structures that are influenced by their activities. Therefore, nursing professional is keen on evaluating how a theory would serve their interest in terms structure. Theories should make a critical reflection on objective of the matter presented by the theory. However, the criteria may not be very useful in evaluating theory of nursing as it more of subjective other than objective; it concerns social perspective other than professional perspective. It is clear that Peplau was objective in when formulating the interpersonal relationship other than subjective so that the entire nursing workforce around the world. Her objectives were illustrated n her models mentioning nursing roles that can only be effective if they objective.

Assumptions of theory is one of the highest regarded as one of the highest essential criteria for evaluating a theory. It is a fact that theories tend to produce biased interpretation or results in practical cases. When developing a theory, theorist must consider challenges that affect interpretation and application o f theories by the target group. The criteria are essential in determining the degree of subjectivity and objectivity of nursing theory. Additionally, the criteria would be useful in the sense that it helps reviews assess the reliability and flexibility of a theory. There is a difference between real life situation and theoretical situations. Therefore, the Chin and Krammer developed essential criteria of assumptions when defining theories. Peplau must have included some assumptions to come with the models. To illustrate, Peplau assumed that if nurses portrayed active leadership they would become responsible in meeting patient needs. Apparently, her assumption presents logic interpretation of her theory of interpersonal skills.

Clarity of a theory is one of the critical reflections that reflect high level of objectivity of a theory. The degree of clarity of a theory would make reviewers develop either positive or negative attitude towards a theory. A theory that fails to present clear purpose and concepts should be disregarded at all cost for failing to present the needed objective. In essence, clarity of theory will attract huge criticism from various reviewers. The theory of interpersonal is clear to every concerned nurse around the globe. Consequently, it has posed major impact in medical sector where nurses have clearly interpreted the theory to treat patients with more humane attitude than it used to be.

When criticizing a theory, simplicity of the theory can attract great attention to reviewers. Therefore, theorist Chinn and Krammer presented an excellent model by including simplify as one of the criteria of criticizing theories. Theorists would create negative perception if the concepts of their concepts are difficult to understand and thus fail apply in professional work. People have a tendency of reflecting positive perception over theory on simple instructions.

Accessibility, generalizability, and importance criteria are equally especially in evaluating criteria. The explore reliability and applicability of theories. The importance of theory corresponds to the purpose criterion of describing a theory. In this particular theory of Peplau, aspect such as generalizability, simplicity, and accessibility are present and play key role in achieving the purpose of the theory in the workforce. Therefore, it is true to conclude that chin and Krammer make logic sense on how to evaluate theories sing criticisms. Peplua’s theory of interpersonal skill perceived positive criticism from many medical stakeholders even in the contemporary world.

In conclusion, the model of Chinn and Krammer present logic ways of describing theories and creating a critical reflection. Purpose, concepts, definitions, relations, and assumptions present arguments for describing theories. The structure criterion presents a weak argument in describing nursing theories as it is more subjective yet it should be objective. Majority of the criteria have helped evaluate the theory of interpersonal theory of nursing implying that Chin and Krammer presented well-defined criteria to evaluate acceptable theories.

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