Question

  1. Introduction

This section introduces the recent Tropical Storm Imelda, its place, time and date of occurrence. It also provides details on how such weather events occur from a meteorological perspective.

  1. Body

Sub-topic 1: This section describes the potential causes of Tropical Storm Imelda including its intensity and how it developed.

Sub-topic 2: This section describes the outcomes of the storm at its place of impacts, including the legislations put in place to mitigate the effects of similar weather events in future.

Sub-topic 3: This section describes the existing technologies for storm prediction.

Sub-topic 4: This section describes the potential mitigation measures that can be put in place to prevent the impacts of such weather events in future.

  • Conclusion

This section restates the main points presented in the paper’s body and provides recommendations on measures that should be put in place to promote preparedness and make better predictions of similar weather events in futures.

Answer;

Introduction

Several extreme weather events have been recorded in history such as rainstorms, extreme temperatures, extremely strong winds, tornadoes and hurricanes. Most of these extreme weather events are associated with loss of lives and property. This paper focuses on describing a recent rainstorm, that is known as Tropical Storm Imelda that was experienced in Texas, United States from September 17 2019 to September 21, 2019.According to the American Museum of Natural History (2020), rainstorms occur when large amounts of water evaporate from the ocean hence transferring water vapor and energy into the atmosphere. When the excess water vapor condenses at low temperatures, it may result into extreme rainstorms. Information about Tropical Storm Imelda is obtained from reliable literature sources (The American Museum of Natural History, 2020). The paper covers the causes of the storm, the outcomes of the events, the available technologies for predicting occurrence of and measures to mitigate impacts of a similar weather event in  the future.

Causes of  Tropical Storm Imelda

According to the National Hurricane Center and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (2019), Tropical Storm Imelda developed from a depression that first occurred in the Gulf of Mexico. The depression increased in strength as it approached coast and at that point it was named as Tropical Storm Imelda. It developed suddenly and within a short time it intensified. The storm was also concentrated in a small area. According to a climatologist in Texas State, it is usually a challenge to predict such storms and flash floods because the intensity of rainfall varies from one area to another because of varying geographical. Before the occurrence of the storm, the flood control district of Harris County had predicted that there would be rainfall but the National Weather Service’s forecasted that it would occur as a low intensity tropical depression. However, when it began to rain, the rainfall intensity was extremely beyond the initial predictions. The rainstorm lasted over 72 hours after which it was declared as a disaster because it had significantly affected at least thirteen counties.

Outcomes

According to Yoder (2019), the storm causes a heavy rainfall of at least 40 inches hence resulted into heavy flooding especially in Houston .Major rivers such as the Neches, Jacinto and Lower Trinity Rivers in the area were covered by the floods. Roadways were also negatively impacted by the floods as daily transport operations were inhibited. Water rescue teams were deployed to save the lives of people who were at the risk of succumbing to the flood waters. In response to occurrence of the storm, the governor of Texas declared it as a disaster and authorized that unlimited resources should be allocated to the counties affected by storm Imelda. By the time the storm was subsiding, approximately 2,400 insurance claims due to flooding had been issued. Over 10,000 vehicles had been destroyed and it was estimated that the property damages caused by storm Imelda had reached a billion dollars. Five deaths were also linked to the storm. On October 1, the U.S President Donald Trump announced a declaration of national disaster. Households and individuals in Orange, Montgomery, Jefferson, Harris and Liberty Counties would be provided with material and financial assistance. The disaster management facilities would be repaired. Actions would be taken to prevent long-term and significant risks to property and life due to similar weather events (Center for disaster Philanthropy, 2019).

Following the storm event, several measures have been taken to reduce the vulnerability of the Texas Coast to flooding. The hazard disclosure law requires the people to disclose whether their homes are located near or within a flood pool, flood plain or a reservoir. The state legislature put in place some funding mechanisms to support the development of flood control systems such as the Texas Infrastructure Resiliency Fund and the Flood Infrastructure Fund.

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