Order Description;

Research Narcissistic Personality disorders and provide information on the disorder along with the treatment reality in a correctional setting (institution or probation) in your discussion. Do you find that treatment for the disorder is readily available? Is treatment for psychological disorders as prevalent as for addiction?
Use Clive Hollin (2007) as one of the reference!!!


Personality disorders are of various types. They cause the infected to behave and acquire attributes that cause them behave in socially unpleasing ways, negatively affecting their ability to perform well in life matters like studies and work. Narcissistic Personality Disorder refers to a condition whereby an individual is excessively preoccupied with personal prestige, adequacy, and power mentally not able to recognize the destructive damage they are causing to themselves and their neighbors in the process. This disorder is rare as it affects only a small percentage of the population. Those diagnosed with this condition often view themselves superior to the others and consider themselves important than anyone they meet. In addition, the self-esteem of such individuals is highly provoked by a slight criticism (Levy et al., 2007)

People with Narcissistic Personality Disorder have strong thoughts of admiration and minimized feelings of compassion. They posses exaggerated feelings of self-importance regardless of the others in the society. The disorder has several symptoms. One of the symptoms is that the affected individual seeks recognition as being a superior human without any important accomplishment in life. They also expect attention throughout, positive comments from others and more admiration. Moreover, they have the belief that they are always envied by other persons whereas it is they who have the vice of envy. These people are always arrogant and lack the capability to sympathize with the desires of others. In addition, their minds are always pre occupied with fantasies and thoughts mostly of power, intelligence, great success, and attractiveness.

People diagnosed with personality disorder have ambitious expectations. They also view themselves as individuals of high dignity, dramatic and portray an antisocial behavior. They take advantage of other people by being personally exploitative to achieve more and find it very difficult to relate with others. They always seem to set unrealistic goals and exaggerate talents and other special achievements. People with strong confidence and self-esteem behave in the same way as those with narcissistic personality disorder (Ronningstam, et al., 2007). In children, superiority feelings and elated self-views are indicators of narcissism although they are termed as normal development for them. This is because they lack the capacity to understand between their ideal self and the actual self. At eight years, a child has the capacity to view booth the positive and negative aspects of self. They start to develop in relation to their peers and turn more realistic.

Narcissistic personality disorder is caused by several factors. Among the factors is excessive honor for good quality deeds or too much criticism for negative behavior during childhood. Another possible cause would be oversensitive personal traits at birth, extreme admiration that is rarely balanced with realistic feedback, praise by adults for extra ordinary looks which are only perceived, harsh emotional abuse during childhood, over valuation by peers, family members and parents and finally one may learn manipulative behaviors from the parents. Narcissistic traits are mostly common within the developmental stage of an individual. When the traits are multifaceted by failure of the interpersonal setting and go on until adulthood, narcissistic personality disorder is diagnosed. In a research conducted recently, it was found out that there exists a structural abnormality in the brains of individuals with NPD (Hollin, 2008). The gray matter in the left anterior insular reduces in volume, bearing in mind it is the same region of the brain that relate to sympathy, emotional regulation, compassion and cognitive functioning.

Treating Narcissistic Personality disorders is very challenging. It can be done in either a hospital setting or a correctional setting like an institution or probation. People with severe Narcissistic Personality disorders are often hospitalized. Individuals with self destructive or very poor reality testing are mostly hospitalized because of Axis 1 symptoms overlaid upon the personality disorder. The period spent in the hospital setting should be brief and treatment used should be based on the particular symptom involved. Other people who require the hospitalization are those with extremely poor outpatient motivation in treatment, chaotic lifestyles, and chronic destructive behavior. The specialized personal environment, family involvement, and specialized personal psychotherapy offer a serene atmosphere for correction of people with such behavior. The environment at the hospital is holding rather than being containing making it very effective in addressing the disorder.

Another form of treatment that could be involved is group therapy. In this setting, the main goal is to assist the patient develop a healthy personality and recognize others as different persons. The patient is also able to build up self-defeating survival mechanisms. The initial stage of developing a serene environment is sympathy with the hurt and surprises that people with Narcissistic Personality disorders experiences within a group in an institution or probation. The people in charge of the group develop a control mechanism to destroy destructive behavior although patients have an ego weakness. The therapist should maintain emotional experience, be less authoritative, and create a better environment for meeting and clarification of ideas. Patients with NPD are less vulnerable to separation anxieties although they have issues rotating around maintenance of self-worth. The use of correctional setting like institutions and probation provide the most suitable environment for controlling the disorder.

The treatment for Narcissistic Personality disorders is readily available. This is because the measures applied to control the condition are readily available and easy to understand and implement. People with this disorder need more counseling unless in other complications where more resources are used and highly qualified staff used. The treatment of psychological disorders is less widespread compared to the treatment of addiction complications. Addiction cases are more compared to those of psychological complications and therefore there are more centers dealing with addiction cases (Jackson et al., 2008). The number of patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder is very few globally. Many causes for addiction make it to be widespread and well understood by therapists and therefore, they have come up with modern efficient means of correcting it. People with particular addictions face challenging side effects compared to the psychologically affected patients. Patients diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder need guidance and counseling to cope up with the situation.

In conclusion, Narcissistic Personality Disorder is serious condition because it affects the relationship of people at school and at the work environment. Therapists should put more effort to reduce the prevalence of the condition by encouraging parents to treat their children right with less pressure and encouraging people to view themselves equal to other individuals. The condition should be treated at an early stage to reduce complications. Although there are different types of personality disorders, Narcissistic Personality Disorder is more common and it is mostly experienced with high rank people, for instance, managers of a company. Everyone should be involved in reducing the spreading of the disorder through all means.

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