Question;

Please write an essay for the attached outline (Water desalination as a commodity).

A) Planning the rhetorical situation:
1. Identification of the commodity
– What is the significance of this commodity?
– What is the information you want the readers to learn about this commodity?
– What is the impact of this commodity on the environment and/or society?

Water is significant because it’s the main indispensable element for our life. All living
things require water in a way or another in order to keep their life going. Moreover,
water could vanish.It’s a consumable and obtained from non-renewable source. If
it’s over, our life will end. Furthermore, it has an economic impact and it affects the
standard of living of the people.
The people in our world should be aware of water importance and that we are in
danger if the consumption rate was higher than the amount of water we have. If we
did not start truly in discovering other source of water or a better way to desalinate
sea water, starvation and poverty will spread worldwide and we will return centuries
and centuries back.
The water impact on the environment and societies is noticed in many different
sides. The positive side of the water consumption is that many forests will grow and
the agriculture will increase. However, if water was provided by desalination, the
environment will be harmed since nowadays burning fossil fuels is the method used
to provide energy to the desalination process, and this implies emitting toxic gases
and greenhouse effect and other harmful effects. Consequently, the society either
will get benefit, from the agriculture rise, since food will be available and it could be
exported or the society could be harmed if the water was rare and if it was provided
by desalination due to its cost and harmful effects.

2. Identification of the audience
– Whom do you want to persuade?
– Why do you want to address this group in particular?
– Consider the age, gender, language, culture, religion, level of education, economic
class, geographic location, and/or other circumstances of your audience.
– Is this audience hostile, sympathetic and/or neutral to your message? Why?
– If your audience is the consumer of this commodity, what cultural factors or belief
systems are fueling their demand for the commodity?

Col 145: Plan for Persuasive Essay V1.3 Student Name: Wadheha Fayez
– Are there any cultural sensitivities you should consider?
– How much does your audience already know about the commodity?

The people that will be persuaded are the people who are not aware of the danger
of water lack. Furthermore, the people who do not know the method water is
obtained and how we desalinate it and about their circumstances. Moreover, the
people who are ignorant and notbelieving in this case and who think that there is
plenty of water that will remain for ages. Those groups should be addressed
particularly because they consume and waste water in huge amounts. So, if we
convinced them, we will reach a better spot. The audience is consisted of large
portion of the worldwide population. The age varies from the children to the
grownups. Both genders are included, neglecting the level of education and the
economic classes, since all of us are responsible. The audiencefrom all different
parts of the world will be targeted. However, the people living in our region will get
more concentration since here the consumption rate is too high compared to the
rest part of the world. Furthermore, that water desalination is costly and it is the
main source of fresh water here in our region. Moreover, the ground water in our
country, especially, is vanishing.
I believe that the audience will be neutral to the message since as a human habit,
each one want to live a better life and for the coming generation which means there
children. In addition, this message is not offensive, it’s emotional.
Since the main targeted audience are the people living in this region are Muslims,
using water frequently in many purposes are fuelled by the religion and by the
culture. So this could be an obstacle. Such as, having a large plantation even if its
purpose is decoration. In addition, for each prayer, water is used for certain religious
practices.
Cultural sensitivities would be associated since at the first instant the audience will
not accept reducing their water usage significantly due to some future acclaims in
their point of views. They will prefer their cultural habit instead of saving water. One
of the sensitivities that should be considered is watering the luxury plantation
around the houses or even using the plantation that are suitable to our region that
needs a low amount of water and could hold our climate.
Since the audience is wide, their knowledge about the commodity will vary.
However, a large portion has a low level of knowledge.

Col 145: Plan for Persuasive Essay V1.3 Student Name: Wadheha Fayez

3. Purpose
– What is your argument and position?
– What is the message you want to convey to this audience?
– Why do you wish to convey this message? What do you hope will be achieved?

The argument and position is that water is rare and essential and there is a high
demand for it. So then, we should aware the audience especially the ignorant ones
about those facts.
The message is, water is the most essential element in our life and we should save it.
Furthermore, the consumption rate is too high especially in our region and in the
same time, the fresh water is too rare and that there will be a time that we will not
have water.
I wish to convey this message because I found many people are wasting water in
huge amount as if water will never finish. Ignoring the fact that it is limited as
underground water. Even for the desalination, there is energy constrain. I wish that
their consumption habit will change.
I hope that the targeted audience will be aware and that they will start seriously
saving water and thinking about the future.

4. Strategy
– How do you plan to affect your audience emotionally?
– How do you plan to appeal to your audience’s sense of logic?
– Do you plan to use ethos? How?

Videos and photos of the people in Africa and in other poor countries that don’t
have fresh water in sufficient amounts could affect the emotion of the audience
extremely. The people die there due to lack of water. Also, here in our region many
people before this modern age were found dead in the deserts because of thirst. In
addition, many tribes raided other tribes in order to occupy their water sources and
this happened frequently.
Our case is logical and realistic.The audience sense of logic could be convinced by
numbers, figures and facts. Such as the amount of water sources available and the
consumption rate and the cost of desalinated water and the difficulties associated
with.

Col 145: Plan for Persuasive Essay V1.3 Student Name: Wadheha Fayez
In my point of view, ethos is not applicable to this case. Till this moment there is no
any person or organization that done a great service in order to solve this problem.

5. Research
– List of academic sources that will inform your argument
– For the conferences with your instructor, bring the articles/books that you have read
with highlighted sections you find relevant
– Annotations that will be incorporated
– List of references in APA style

Answer;

Introduction

Life without water is impossible, as every part of the daily activities is dependent on water. Presently water is becoming a rare commodity in many parts of the world as over one billion people are not accessible to water. The increasing deficiency between demands and available supplies of water is threatening. There is need for all stakeholders and populations in general to join efforts in saving available water resources to avoid any future problems due to lack of water. Both the demand and the supply of water need to be put in a balance to save the future generations from water scarcities.

High Levels of Demand and Consumption of Water

Water is needed in many activities that sustain life of all living things. All domestic activities rely on water though this consumes a little percentage in total amount. Seventy percent of water is utilized within the agricultural sector such as through irrigation while 20% is used in industries, only 10% is used for domestic purposes. The increasing demand of water has had a negative impact on the economy as the costs for water and energy are also increasing. The major challenge in water supply is that water is being withdrawn at a higher rate from the ground while replenishment interventions are minimal (Bayside Bulletin, 2014).

Almost all-available water resources globally are strained owing to increased consumption of water. The major reality people need to understand is that water will never be renewable. The increasing levels of demand are ascribed to the increasing global population, deprived management behaviors, reduced quality of water due to pollution, depletion of water resources urbanization and limited fresh surface water. High demands of energy in the present world are a great contributor to increased demands of water. Biofuel production is also a major concern in consuming water. Resources for water are limited due to climate change that cause shortage of water, large arid areas with no access to water and the increased concentration of people in areas like the cities and towns where the available water is not able to meet the needs (Leidner et al., 2014).

Water is essential and its diminishing aspect needs to be approached with commitment from all populations to avoid any risks related to water scarcity. All economies depend on water as many cities are built with consideration of available water supplies. It is essential to device mechanisms that may enhance proper use of water and the management of available resources to avoid depletion. Awareness of people is significant in changing water use behaviors, as people need to employ reuse and measures of recycling water.  The agricultural sector should look into ways that reduce high consumption and wastages of water. Regulations in water use are important and as a last resort, desalination of seawater can come in.

Water Desalination

Considering that over 97% of water on earth is salty water desalination might be a solution to water scarcities but obviously, it has advantages and its constraints. Dawoud (2012) argues that comparing desalination with other sources of water, research claims that this process may be a better option in fulfilling water demands even for future generations. This technological advancement in water is being embraced as it is considered to produce water of high quality and reduces the cost of water. Many countries within the Gulf Cooperation council are employing the technology.

Desalination of water is attributed to various negative impacts affecting both human beings and the environment. The process has an impact within marine environment, as the effluents released could possibly be harmful to marine existence of organisms. The process of desalination leads to production of brine water with high temperatures and residues of chemicals. In addition, effluents contain products of reaction as well as heavy metals while increased use of chlorine that results in residues may lead to alteration of normality in the ecosystem. The effluents cause an increase in temperatures of the sea, which distorts the quality of water (Dawoud, 2012).

Desalination demands a great deal of fuel for the process to be complete. Fossil fuels that are not renewable are a major concern in the fight against climate change. Various gases are emitted during combustion of fuel including nitrates, carbonates and sulphates.  These gases largely result to the modification of climate and are harmful when human beings breathe. It is encouraging that technological enhancements are being developed where natural gases are used and emissions are reduced. Green energy should be embraced to ensure that the fight against climate change is not derailed for instance Masdar where interventions using new efficient energies are being piloted (Dawoud, 2012).

Desalination of water is widely used within the region and no objection is available. However governments and other agencies should encourage the use of advanced technologies that will enable the negative implications to be mitigated. It is important that an assessment of the impacts of the project be done to ensure that adequate mitigation measures are put in place. Research is inevitable in the desalination field so that cost effective measures are brought about and the efficiency is improved to ensure that desalination is environmental friendly rather than causing other harm.

Other Solutions

            Probably there is no any current solution able to address the problem of water scarcities. However, other mechanisms must be employed to ensure that cost effective measures are used rather than desalination. Even though agencies are making efforts in increasing the levels of supply, knowledge and awareness is very important, as populations need to be aware of the importance of water and the effects of its scarcity. Legislations also need to be amended to fit the current situation such that urbanization and industrialization do not suppress the water supply (Leidner et al., 2014).

According to Yeomans, (2012) most communities are less aware of water and its characteristics such as non-renewability. Using social media is important in the present world where the generation is technological sensitive. All populations without any exceptions need to be informed about water issues. Education system should be widely supported to ensure that innovation is encouraged within the field of water. Even though we are in a dilemma of solving water scarcity efforts should be enhanced to address the issue. All fields including science, technology and education should work in collaboration to ensure that the efforts made are successful.

Conclusion

Populations should acknowledge that water is a vital commodity in life. We need also to acknowledge that our consumption of water has surpassed the levels of supply and that we need to address this issue. Since fresh water is scarce and generally, water as a commodity is nonrenewable we are yet to experience the greatest scarcity ever if proper mitigation measures are not implemented. While desalination of water is widely being embraced by many countries in addressing water shortages, it should be recognized that the system is not efficient and has adverse outcomes to the environment. Awareness should be the key in addressing water scarcity while research should be enhanced to come up with efficient technologies for desalination.

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