the impact of bacterial contamination (Waterborne Infectious Diseases) in flood water in Saudi Arabia/ the impact of water draining system on Microbial infection risk of flood.
Lay summery and a description:
the rain flood incident occurred in Riyadh Saudi Arabia and also flash floods in the Red Sea port of Jeddah killed 123 people in 2009 and 10 in 2011. The Department of Health Affairs has warned people against infections that might spread from waterlogged areas in flooded neighbourhoods, the department also warned against drinking water stored in belowground or ground level cisterns because they were likely to be contaminated by the floodwater.
However, the Saudi authorities have been criticized in the past for lack of preparedness in coping with flooding. The inability of Riyadh and jeddah infrastructure to drain off flood waters and uncontrolled construction in and around these city’s case standing waters pose, this it itself caused various risks, including infectious diseases, Eating or drinking anything contaminated by floodwater can cause diarrheal disease, open wounds and rashes exposed to flood waters can become infected and floodwaters may have moved hazardous chemical containers of solvents or other industrial chemicals from their normal storage places. it is imperative to have knowledge on the situation with regard to the occurrence and spread of human pathogens in waterlogged areas in flooded neighbourhoods. This knowledge needs to be updated continuously so that appropriate responses can be prepared.
Areas of Future Research and Development.
Mainly Looking at:
1. The interaction between draining, water management and water related disease and their vectors.
2. Water-born excreta related infections.
3. Health risks and chemical pollution, infection diseases
4. Integrated control of transmission of vector-brone disease.
5. Environmental management measures in draining water management
6. Development of control strategies.
7. Water Sampling Strategies and Culture Techniques for Detecting Special Pathogen. Microbiologic Sampling of the flood water, and also flood soil. To determine the presence, type, count of bacterial contamination of water.
8. forms of treatment needed to be done before consumption. looking at Principles of Cleaning and Disinfecting Environmental Surfaces.
9. Looking at Recommendations for Waterborne Infection Control in Saudi Arabia, Microbial Control Strategies, for Controlling Waterborne Contamination. Flood water sources, assess quality, and sanitation systems (Water Distribution Systems) hygiene aspects in Saudi Arabia.
10. highlighting the current limitations and also possible future developments.
Saudi authorities became a subject of critics for failing to portray frantic effort in controlling flood. In 2009, flood incident in Jeddah lead to loss of 123 lives and 10 in 2011. Despite the fact that the Department of Health Affairs taking measures in warning the Saudi citizens against consuming water that has contacted with flood water, the Saudi authority has a primary obligations of preventing the crisis in the near future. Failure to construct reliable infrastructure would lead to future massive loss of life due to reliable drainage system (Wiyiyit, 2013).
The Saudi Authority should consider improving things under the following areas
The first crucial step would entail improving interaction between water management, drainage, and vectors. The Saudi Department of Health Affairs and Infrastructure would consider joining hands in controlling infections propelled by floodwater. The infrastructure department should take obligations of improving drainage system in the country. Improving drainage system would highly reduce cases of contamination of drinking water since floodwater would not mix with drinking water.
Additionally, the strategy would also prevent cases where floodwater would introduce hazardous chemical to domestic water.The health department would take measure of educating Saudi people on vector and water diseases caused by flooding crises. The measure would also include warning Saudi citizens from avoiding consuming water contaminated by floodwater.
Secondly, the Saudi health authorities would consider making a comprehensive development in ensuring to its citizens familiarize with water related diseases. The fact is that water diseases related to water are complex in nature. The analysis of diseases such as cholera, shigellosis, and salmonellosis among other are yet to be conducted comprehensively. Additionally, water related diseases contribute to highest children diseases. Availing information to the public regarding water diseases would be an ideal strategy to consider. The health authority should also consider circulating brochures indicating infections related to water including hepatitis, malaria, scabies, lead poisoning, cholera, anemia among many others.
Infection diseases, Chemical Pollution and Health Risk
The proposal should include the need to conduct comprehensive research and chemical pollution risk related to contaminated water and infection related to water borne. The research would include conducting a comprehensive research on pathogens thriving in contaminated water and harmful solvent chemicals that contaminate drinking water. The research team should mind sharing the findings with the health authorities and avail the necessary recommendations to make the Saudi environment safe to its citizens.
The Saudi would consider implementing environmental measures that would enhance management of water. The strategy would central entail ways of directing draining water into reservoir away from residential places. The strategy would also entail formulating rules and regulations on controlling flooding water. The concerned authority should make ultimate responsibility on ensuing that the drainage system has capability of draining massive volume of water.
The Saudi authority should conduct an intensive research on developing an efficient control strategy aiming at reducing water pollution in the country. The strategy would include assessing control technologies, management practices of the infrastructure and heath authorities, and abetment measures of controlling the Saudi environment. The measure should equally pose specific goals on improving the quality of water meant for human consumption in the entire country.
The management practices would be the highest priority in the strategy as it would reinforces productivity of the health authorities and infrastructure authorities. Abete measure would contribute control water pollution through regulating industries producing chemical industries. The measure would include controlling organic emissions by factories.
Culture Techniques and Sampling Strategies
The health authority of Saudi would consider talking preemptive measures on preventing waterborne infectious diseases through conducting microbiology research. The authority should consider taking sample of water and identity pathogens contaminating drinking water. Additionally, the strategy would also include invoking Culture techniques with a primary aim of identifying special pathogens causing water diseases. To efficiently, invoke the strategy, Saudi heath practitioners should consider conducting an intensive analysis on flood soil and flood water to determine type and count of bacteria present. The strategy is highly essential in the sense that it would help the Saudi health authorities formulate strategies on how to deal with an outbreak of water disease. By identifying quality and type of pathogen would help health facilities within the flood stricken areas stock the right mediation for patients anticipated to suffer from the identified disease.
Preemptive Treatment Measures
The health authority should consider creating awareness to the public on benefits of taking preventive measures. For instance, health practitioners would consider conducting an intensive campaign on enhancing the principle of maintaining domestic cleanliness. The principle in this peculiar case would entail washing kitchen utensils. Secondly, the medical practitioners should portray frantic effort in educating Saudi citizens on the importance of disinfecting the environmental surfaces. The strategy would highly help control pathogens thriving in soil and water.
The Saudi government has obligations carrying out comprehensive strategies on assessing quality of sanitation systems, enhancing Microbial Controls strategies aiming at controlling waterborne contamination. Secondly, the Saud Arabia community should consider enhancing water distribution systems to enhance aspect of hygiene in the country.
Limitations of the Project and Future Developments
The project would meet a number of challenges including acquiring health expertise to conduct the campaign. Secondly, the Saudi government would have to acquiring structural engineers to spear head the flood control infrastructure. The third challenge would entail conducting the research on timely basis because of inadequate expertise. However, constant pressure from affected people would likely stimulate the Saudi government to enhance its effort on preventing future flood crises and spread of waterborne diseases.
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