Order Description

Essay
Component 1 Guidelines

Essay 2.500 words

Students may choose from one of the following topics.
• Mental Health
• HIV/Aids
• Vulnerable mothers and children
• Homeless persons

Critique the responses of the following agents: Public Health, Health Promotion, the government and the general public, ensuring that you focus on the public health and health promotion responses by these agents (Using UK centred examples from 2007-2013 for your chosen topic)

Your essay must include:
• Critically appraise the PH/HP response to the issue through its development.
• Provide examples
• You can use statistics and diagrams to demonstrate your research into this aspect of the assessment but these should be presented in an appendix.
• Analyse the policies and research evidence supporting the Public Health / or Health Promotion response to the topic you choose to explore.
• Discuss the influence the government agenda has or had
• You must discuss relevant Public Health and / or Health Promotion theories and models to support your discussion.
• Use public opinion poll data to demonstrate public views of the issue.

Re-Assessment 2: Individual presentation
Choose ONE ONLY from the following topics:

Suicide
Immigrants and refugees
Cost to health care
Income and poverty

Critically appraise the media responses to your chosen health issue
Use examples from several forms of media i.e. Newspaper articles, television, radio, internet
Use research evidence to support your critical arguments
Critique how valid the information presented in the media was (compare with policy and research at that time)
Impact on public perception and the impact this could have had

Weight: 30% Length: 10 minutes + 5 minutes Q&A
Date due: TBA Time slots information will be posted on Moodle

• Using the information gathered for assessment component one, prepare and deliver a ten minute presentation that critically appraises* the media responses to your chosen health issue.
• You must use examples from several forms of media, not just newspapers
• You must use research evidence to support your critical appraisal.
• Critique how valid the information presented in the Media was, by comparing it with policy and research on the topic at the time.
• Discuss the impact this had on public perceptions of the topic and / or what potential impact it could have had.
• Use a specific time frame in your analysis (between 2007-2013).
• A hardcopy must be submitted via the turnitin link prior to the presentation. This is to check your similarity report. A deadline will apply.
• A hard copy on the day of presentation is required.
• Allow five minutes after your presentation for question and answer time.

Answer;

UK HIV/AIDS Health Promotion

Introduction

Statistics reveal that cases of HIV and AIDS epidemic are low in the United Kingdom compared some nations around the globe. To be specific, report released by the Avert organization indicated that around 98, 400 people currently live with HIV. The assessment shows why the UK media offer low attention to the media. The number is relativity low but there is great concern that cases of HIV have dramatically increased since 1900s. The figure expanded steadily between 1999 and 2005. However, since then, the annual diagnosis has declined to a lower figure of 6,369 (AVERT, 2014). The brief updates indicate that it would be essential to review how the UK government and the overall public conducts HIV/ AIDS health promotion.

Overview of Promoting Health

As a starting point of the paper, it would be essential to review the general definition of public health. The term is generally defined as an art or science implemented to promote health through combining effort from organizations, society, individuals community and the general public. Therefore, the primary objective of public health is to prolong life and preventing spread of disease to the public. When studying the dimensions of public health, essential interdisciplinary approaches such as health economics, community health, epidemiology, insurance medicine, environmental health, and occupational health and safety are of great significance (Schneider, 2011).

Generally, public health focuses on establishing efficient ways to enhance quality and health through treating and preventing mental health and diseases through monitoring indicators of health. Additionally,   the study of public health focuses promoting healthy behavior in a given community through initiating promotional strategies such as distribution of condoms, proper breast feeding, and administering vaccinations among other strategies (Gillam et al, 2007; Wilson & Mabhala, 2009).

In the United Kingdom, there is notable public health evolution centrally determined by dominant disease. The UK conducts health promotions by incorporating related theories developed by Fishbein and Ajzen. The theories entails focuses on installing planned behavior and reasoned action to achieve the objective of promoting health among individuals. Thus, it is evidently clear that health promotional strategies positively focus on hanging individual attitudes, sense, and beliefs (Wills & Earle, 2007).

The United Kingdom adopts re-oriented and reformed healthcare systems and health systems from a perspective of treatment to prevention (OECD, 2010). The initiative has gained greater intensity in present days compared to the past. The UK has laid emphasis on evaluating major determinants of HIV/ AIDS as an economic and social welfare. The initial assessment raises the need of the UK government to reinforce it health sector by making timely improvements.

Statistics further reveal that in recent days, life expectancy of people infect with HIV can be said to be normal. However, further research indicates that life expectancy of individuals in UK varies with lifestyle, gender, and CD4 count. For instance, women in UK have longer life expectancy compared to men. Biological study further provides that CD4 count is very important in determining the life expectancy of an individual living with HIV. Individuals with high CD4 count have a longer life span. Independent research reveals that distinct lifestyle such as substance use and comorbidities pose significant influence of life expectance of HIV patient (May et al 2014; May et al., 2011).

In the UK, administration of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy posed significant contribution to low level of people dying from AIDS. The assessment therefore indicates that highly contributed in lowering the number of people dying from HIV infection. The UK government and the public have embraced the use of the drugs to help people of UK living with HIV/AIDS (HPA, 2012). UK has put considerable efforts in promoting health habits among people living with HIV. Report by Public Health England revealed that majority of deaths attributed by HIV related illness was contributed by late diagnosis. Consequently, majority of HIV victims failed to start treatment early enough. However, through coordination of the UK government and concerned health authorities have put measures to see that majority of HIV victims are diagnosed early enough to start treatment.

UK Health Promotion and Public Health to HIV/AIDS

In essence, sexual matter should be a confidential matter to an individual. Additionally, practicing appropriate sexual health is essential to the society and individuals. However, it is necessary for the public to be aware of healthy sexual practices to avert cases of sexual transmitted diseases such as HIV. The case should apply in developed states such the UK by educating its citizen on the use of contraceptive, offering advice on how to evade STI’s and establishing safe relationships. It would be very wrong for the UK government to assume that majority of UK pollution possess adequate knowledge on how HIV is transmitted.

Report provides that the United Kingdom has put modest effort in creating public awareness of HIV/AIDS. The situation sound ridiculous in the sense that the number of sexual transmitted disease is on a soaring trend in recent years. To illustrate, by 2000, 91 percent of UK people had knowledge that HIV is transmitted through unprotected sex. The figure declined to almost 80 percent in 2010 (NAT, 2011). The House of Lords Committee further supported the fact that information related to HIV and Aids has fallen far much below public radar. Independent report provides that the UK failed to establish national strategy for the last since 2010 (Select Committee on HIV and AIDS in the United Kingdom, 2011).

An independent report by the crime survey of England cases of sexual offence in both England and Wales recorded sexual violence involving 400, 000 female victims. Eight-five thousand of the cases were accrued to sexual assaults such as rape (Avert, 2014 ). The report indicates that a big population of UK lack adequate information on how to keep safe from sexual violence that may contribute to the spread of HIV and AIDS. Sexual violence perpetrators fail to acknowledge that cases of rape can contribute to spread of HIV since the female victims has no chance to explain her HIV status. Furthermore, the sexual criminals have no time to use contraceptives as one of the protective measures against contracting HIV virus.

Additionally, the UK government poses critical challenge on how to conduct public awareness on HIV and AIDS. The government should explain how it arrived to making decision where HIV services is under the responsibility of local authority other than the regional primary care trusts as it used to be earlier on. The new program indicates that the UK government has portrayed modest commitment in putting efforts to sustain HIV services. The policy has created confusion to the public over connection between sexual health services and HIV services.

On a positive note, further research reveals that the UK creates unnecessary barriers that affect public awareness to HIV and AIDS. The government banned UK health workers living with AIDS taking part in in particular medical procedure. The change provides some relief to people living with AIDS especially to the health workers. People will no longer have to develop negative attitude towards them.

Following the inadequate measures established by the government increase public awareness to HIV and AIDS, various groups have emerged to promote HIV health. For instance, the Office Minster of Scotland demonstrated initiative of analyzing the benefits of existing health promotion of HIV and AIDS conducted by voluntary bodies and the state. The review aimed at establishing effective efforts that can help controlling spread of the HIV virus. The report established that UK health boards have adopted ineffective and efficient approaches of creating public awareness to HIV. Therefore, the report concluded that the health boards have urgent obligations of reviewing their current approaches in order to make a significant improvement in containing the spread of HIV in UK (Mladovsky, 2009).

UK Health Promotion and Public Health Initiative towards Homosexuals

A report by PHE (2014), estimated that in 2012, that there were approximately 40,900 MSM living HIV. Further, research revealed that a small margin of 17 percent of the figure were aware of their HIV status. The report concludes that prevalence of HIV among the MSM can be contentious issue in the United Kingdom. The statistics further reveals that 51 percent of the cases HIV diagnosis was directly connected to MSM. The number increased by a margin of 10 percent in 2011. The record was termed as the highest ever in the history of the country. The case was adverse in Scotland where sex between gay people accounted for a massive margin of 71 percent of new cases of HIV diagnosis since 2004 (Scottish Government, 2014). Report by PHE (2014), established that 34 percent of cases of men having sex with fellow men in the United Kingdom were diagnosed late in 2012 thereby posing imminent challenge to initiatives aiming at starting treatment early.

Cases of prevalence homosexuality are not strange in the United Kingdom. Therefore, it would be ideal to consider reviewing how minor groups of gays fall at risk of contracting STI’s particularly HIV. Health promotions and public health organs based in the United Kingdom have established an initiative aimed a reviewing risks related to transformation to gays (Merson et al., 2008). Consequently, health promotions and public health have adopted integrative approaches. The approach is ideal over combination of intervention since it is more efficient than integrative preventive activities, any single approach as far as recognizing sexual activities as part of individual life (DiClemente et al., 2009).

A big number of gay people possess inadequate direct contact agencies established to prevent STI’s infections. Subsequently, UK has taken initiative of establishing Peer Education. The objective Peer Education is to bring the gay into awareness of dangers unsafe sex and more so preventing intensive spread of HIV (Kirby et al., 2007). Maibach et al., (2007), noted that the UK public health sector has established distinct settings education models. The initiative has proved to be efficient in preventing HIV infection among UK gays.

In addition, the health promotion and public health sectors of the United Kingdom have demonstrated considerable efforts in preventing sexually transmitted infections an observation of safe sex to homosexuals (Health Prevention England, 2012). The sectors have taken initiative of providing water-based lubricants and distributed condoms to the gay community in the United Kingdom. The sectors ensured that the lubricants and condoms were accessible in venues used by gays. A critical review on the UK effort in preventing spread of HIV among gays implies that the government has formulated an effective agenda.

Health Promotion and Pubic Health Initiatives towards Young Population

Minkler (2010), noted that the UK has considers promoting health strategies to colleges and universities as one of the measures to guide young population avowing contacting HIV virus. The strategy involves health promotion campaign where teachers based in UK are trained to familiarize with ways of preventing spread of HIV virus. The campaign entails use of internet, sharing experiences, and electronic means. The aim of the initiative was to pass the acquired information to young learners. The strategy has already shown some results in the sense that it has guided young people in adopting a cultural shift where teachers are comfortable to tech student issues concerning sexuality and health education.

The UK government reached the strategy upon realizing that it would be ideal to for young population to change lifestyle and sexual attitudes. A survey conducted in the country revealed that young heterosexual populations are adversely affected by the spread of unsafe sex. To illustrate, a study carried out by Doncaster revealed that transmission of HIV among heterosexual mainly take place in nightclubs. The report further indicates that the participants frequently engage in unprotected sex thus elevating the risk of spreading STIs (Sills, 2010). The study conducted by the Public Health England (2013), established that in 2012, a margin of 45 percent cases of heterosexual sex were contracted HIV infection. The report further indicates that the number of cases where young people contracted HIV infection through heterosexual sex is on a downward trend. The statistic reveals that the case was different between 2002 and 2011 where the margin raised from 27 percent to 52 percent.

A critical review of the initiative is set to effectively guide varsity students in learning effective ways of preventing transmission of HIV. Young adults are highly susceptible to transmission of STIs since they may lack the necessary oral teachings. In fact, it has proved to produce valid results as far as preventing transmission of HIV among youths based in UK.

UK Government Agenda on Preventing HIV

Much as the UK government has perceived serious criticism over laxity in creating public awareness to HIV, the government set agenda for action primarily to address issues related to HIV. The Parliamentary Reception launched the Agenda for Action on 20 October 2010. The aim of the agenda included reducing rater of transmission of HIV through implementing effective prevention programs, establishing respects, equality, and rights of people of the United Kingdom living with HIV. Additionally, the program aims at delivering effective commissioning that would address needs of local people living with HIV, to reduce cases of late diagnosis, and ensuring that the state adopts national strategic approach to address HIV.

The Agenda for Action is open to business, trade unions, government, individuals, healthcare, legislatures, implying that everyone was invited to take part in pledging for any assistance. A closer look at the reliability of the agenda implies that the UK government formulated effective aims that would enhance public health promotions. However, the agenda appears to be set for only a short period since there is bantam evidence that the parliament is willing to set aside massive financial resources to prevent spread of HIV in UK (National Aids Trust, 2014).

 

 

Overview of Health Promotion Theories

The change theory is an essential theory that can be used to evaluate interventions of health promotion (Reason & Bradbury, 2001). The theory stipulates that individuals should consider building long-term goals that would provide results. In this particular case, the theory can be used to evaluate the reliability of strategies and program messages adopted by the public and UK government. Using the concepts of the change and action theory, it is a fact that issues concerning HIV adapt idea from social and behavioral sciences that concerns public health workers. The value of the theory is demonstrated by how UK people living with HIV would benefit from the aims provided by the parliament and public health workers. In other words, the two theories shed light on how the strategies would help accomplish long-term solution.

Conclusion

The study has focused on how the general public and the UK government has adopted health promotion and public health responses towards preventing spread of HIV. Findings from various sources indicate that the UK government has failed to put frantic effort in creating public awareness over risks of HIV and AIDS. The situation explains why cases of HV and AIDs are still concerning issues despite the fact that UK has facilities to campaign against the infection. O the other hand, the government has established clear aim on how to avert the spared of disease through it parliament. So far, the agenda has not produced promising results implying that the aims are yet to be fulfilled. In other words, the UK government and the public have urgent responsibility of ensuring they adopt efficient health promotion and public health response to address adequately the menace of HIV/ AIDS.

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