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a topic that you are interested in that relates to something in the Latino/Latin American/Iberian world. You will need five academics sources per paper, MLA style. A Works Cited page (no websites permitted, but full article databases like JSTOR are very helpful). Please use Costa Rica and pride in their Democracy.


Costa Rica and Pride in Their Democracy


The democracy of Latin America became highly prominent in early 1940 only to decline towards the end of the World War II. The democracy picked towards the end of 1950s and early 1960s. However, it declined significantly thereafter picked again in 1980s and 1990s. In other words, the democracy of the Latin America can be defined as cyclical in nature. It is worth mentioning that the region exhibited constitutional democracy mainly depicted through open elections. In the 1970s, the region experienced a significant decline in violations of human rights. The research will focus pride and democracy of Costa Rica.

History of Costa Rica

The history of Costa Rica traces its roots in 1502 when Christopher Columbus. Columbus discovered Costa Rica on his final journey to the new world. He met the Indian local community that welcomed him to their territory. According to archeologists, civilization in Costa Rica was I place a number of years before Columbus and his crew arrived in the region. Before Columbus arrived in the region, Costa Rica was occupied by major indigenous tribes namely Chibchas, borucas, Caribs, and Diquis. During the period of colonials, Costa Rica was among the many Latin America countries that were impoverished and lowly developed nation. Costa Rica highly benefited from the Mexican War of Independence between 1810. The Spanish colony dominated the area by then. The Spanish colony described Costa Rica as one of the poorest colony in the among the Latin America countries. The colony resolved to bring in African slavery since the indigenous population was low work o their land effectively. However, the idea of ringing in slavery failed to  address the situation. Therefore, the Spanish settlers resolved to migrate to high areas.

The country gained independence I the early 19th century when Napoleon revolted against between 1810 and 1821. During the period of independence, Costa Rica became a part of the Mexican Empire in 1821. The country gained full independence in 1838 after joining the Federal Republic of Central America way back in 1823.despite the fact that the country attained independence, the economic prospects failed to pick with time. The country attained democracy in 1869 after the period of the Costa Rican Civil War held in 1948

Costa Rica experienced a peaceful era in the beginning of 1869 elections. In the election history of Costa Rica, the 169 elections were considered to be the highest peaceful. The democracy paved way to abolition of violence in the county. It only the Civil War that marked a significant level of violence since the country demonstrated the need to attain independence (Morera and Marin‐Rojas 71-80).

Current Costa Rica

Costa Rica is one of the developing nations that experienced unprecedented economic crisis contrary to what many citizen were hopeful to experience, legitimacy of the  country in a complex way. In the history, Costa Rica exhibited a weaker social progress compared t other Latin America countries. The country had a small Indian population and minerals such as gold and silver. Consequently, colonialists resolved to venture into subsistence agriculture. Colonial farms enjoyed the privilege of ling in farms rather town like many other Latin American nations.

The church demonstrated a considerable effort in expelling colonials that declined to shift towards the central. However, the Church failed to fight for then needed democracy. Towards the end of 1804-1805, the colonials auctioned the property of the church. The church was further weakened by introduction of coffee by colonialist. The church experienced a major loss of income when the independent government passed a resolution to exempt coffee as tithe. In any way, the Church posed modest influence of Cost Rican politics in the 19th century.

In the nineteenth century, the military occasionally interfered with the politics of Costa Rica. Research reveals that between 1824 and 1899, a third of presidents resolved to give up the office before their designated terms. A fifth of the presidents were subject to coups. In essence, the military of the Costa Rica took charge of the county for a half of the period of 75 years of the country’s independence. During the period of early independence, the county established constitutional norms allowing indirect participation since the military was no longer in power.

The country gained an essential constitutional progress where the country held direct presidential elections and other top officials. However, the size of the electorate was inhibited by restrictions on suffrages. In the twentieth century, the political history of Costa Rica exhibited significance growth of the electorate. The government of the country formalized registrion of voter in 1918 and issued voter with registration card. Since then, the country has inhibited continual refinements and registration system that depicted a considerable level of honest elections. Within a couple of years, the county introduced the secret ballot system and used the system to hold the 1925 elections. The special election commission supervised the elections. The electoral commission of the country acquired ore power and respect by from its government and citizens. To illustrate, the constitution provided that police power to be turned to avoid police exercising their duty to intimidate voters.

The 1984 Civil War marked a significant growth in participation of elections in the country. The country introduced the new constitution in 1949 that excluded suffrage for sex qualifications, literacy, and the entire property. Additionally, the Costa Rican army was successfully excluded from politics and any other matters pertaining civilians.  Consequently, the turnout of voters grew significantly in the subsequent elections where 56 percent of the population registered as voters and three-quarters took part in casting the ballot.

Costa Rica made a significant progress in resolving distribution and production issues beyond 1930s. The country also experienced huge growth in resumption during the repression period in the 1930s compared to other Latin American nations. The GDP of Costa Rica increased by 147percent between 1920 and 1979. The county GDP level exceeded all other Latin nations other Latin nations. The country realized significant growth of GNP between 1920 and 199 compared to other Latin nations such Guetamala, Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador (Selligson and Muller 301-306).

The significant economic growth of the country favored majority of population of Costa Rica. In 1980s, the country exhibited impressive gains in social security. The literacy level of the county dropped at an impressive rate when the country adopted the compulsory system of education (Molina,and Steven 106). the health sector also experienced significant gain where life expectancy increased by twelve years and a drop in infant mortality rate by a margin of 47 percent in 1960sand 1980s.In comparative context, Costa Rica exhibited impressive outcome in addressing income inequity and absolute poverty. However, the county was yet to address serious issues of underemployment and, rural working age in the 1970s. A big population of Costa Rican citizens lived in substandard housing and cases of rural landlessness were still imminent to rural dwellers.


Despite the fact that Costa Rica had yet to make additional reforms in economic context, the county managed to establish an impressive result in inhibiting legitimacy. A better period of the last half-century, Costa Rica has enjoyed real success from inhibit legitimacy. the county has experienced free and fair elections, experienced constant rulers rotation, and enjoyed benefits of civil rights. The county has also demonstrated the desired an overwhelming voter turnout close to 80 percent since the late 1950s. The country majored in the two-party system that highly contributed to smooth system of elections.

Empirical evidence revels that legitimacy in Costa Rica has highly helped shaped civil society activism and political participation of citizens of Costa Rica . Apparently, Costa Rican supported democratic principles ad national community. Further empirical evidence provides that the citizens of the country have enjoyed significant democracy propelled by absence of legitimacy.

In many cases, Costa Rica, citizens have opportunity to approve or disapprove the government. The situation has significantly enhanced civic engagement especially in matters pertaining humanity. Critical citizens of Costa Rica engage the system of governorship via contacting legislative, county, and levels of ministries. Consequently, majority of Costa Ricans have developed positive regards towards the country’s political system. Additionally, critical Costa Rican acquired opportunity to engage in communal activism. In recent times, supportive citizens have joined hands with critical citizens in engaging in communal activism (Selligson  and Muller 301-326). Overall, empirical evidence highlights that legitimacy has contributed significantly into shaping civil society activism, citizens, and political participation in Costa Rica.

Recent empirical evidence reveals that Costa Rica has laid emphasis on maintaining human rights. the government has been on the frontline in ensuring that human abuse including children sex trafficking, trafficking of people and discrimination based on gender identity and sexual orientating are adequately addressed. The constitution of Costa Rica, the government strongly prohibits practices of busing human. To illustrate, the government of Costa Rica has taking intuitive of conducting intensive investigation over government officials that engage in violating human rights.

The country has further tighten measures of comply with human rights in detention facilities. Previously, prison conditions in Costa Rica were harsh. Issues such as inadequate sanitation, overcrowding, inaccessibly to medical attention and serious violence against inmates were imminent in Costa Rican detention facilities.

Technological Innovation

Technological innovation of Costa Rica has significantly bolstered economic prospect of the county. The country has made a significant step in diversifying its production techniques. Consequently, the manufacturing industry of the county has experienced impressive outcome. The county has also made the best of exports bolstered by production of high quality products. The government of the Costa Rica has made conditions favorable for the manufacturing industries to take part in exportation of products in international market.

The initiative put by the democratic governance has enabled high tech firms from international regions establish a conducive location for conducting a business. Costa Rican citizens have significantly benefited from increased number of international investors in the country. Introduction of additional firms have increased job opportunities in the country. One of the highest benefits accrued to the technological advances if the fact that increased employment opportunities has highly contributed to raising standards of living of citizens (Rodríguez-Clare 311-324).


Tourism Prospect of Costa Rica

In recent years, Costa Rica has record he foreign exchange income mainly from the tourism industry. Since the country attained democracy in the middle of the 20th century, the country has experienced significant tourism boom. Since 1980s, Costa Rica has become one of the important tourism destinations in the Latin America region. The county is proud of well-established protected areas and national parks that have attracted tourists around the globe. The countries protected areas and national parks occupy almost 20 percent of the land indicating that the country has a wide variety of flora and fauna.

The tourism industry of Costa Rica is further boosted by presence of large mass of biodiversity. Additionally, country has a number of beaches located in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Tourist find pleasure in viewing volcanoes considered safe to visit. Visitors from international destinations are highly attracted to take nature wall to watch fauna, flora, bird watching, and trekking among other tourism activities (Bulte 495-506).

The tourism industry of the country is further boosted by the fact that the country has the 7 wonders of Costa Rica. Many local and foreign have take keen interest in Chirpo mountain, Tortugueor Canals, Arenal Volcano, Cocos Island, and Poas Volcano, and Monterverde Reserve. Apparently, the Costa Rican tourism industry has been boosted by the fact that the county has a stable government. The government has allocated adequate resources to achieve the best from the tourism industry. Such resources include financial resources, security to tourists and land preservation programs (Glassman 12).


The study has revealed that the history of Costa Rica traces its way from the colonial era. The country lived in extreme poverty. The country lacked the needed agricultural resources to make the best of farm products. However, the country put significant efforts in improving its lagging economy and weak security. The county failed to acquire the needed economic prospects since the European settler no longer provided the needed resources.

The country has embraced good governance through embracing legitimacy in its governance system. The government has valued the need to invoke strategies to maintain democratic form of leadership. Through embracing legitimacy, Costa Rica system of governance has attracted positive criticism from activists. Activists are now in a comfortable position to point out the weakness of the government without the need to worry for their fates

Democracy in the Costa Rica is demonstrated through the government’s efforts in ensuring that human rights are complied with at all cost. The government has adopted a number of reforms to ensure that every citizen can access security, good education, proper medical care, and take part in election. The citizens of the country has significantly benefitted from the reform embraced by the government upon attaining the independence. Additionally, the county has also realized a number of economic befits accrued to good governance. The government has supported economic activities such as manufacturing and tourism. The mentioned economic prospects have boosted the GDP of the country making the country become one of the richest in the Latin America. In conclusion, Costa Rica has very reason to acquire pride on its impressive economic and political performance. The country has embraced effective strategies to improve the standards of living of its people and improving literacy level at astonishing rate since it became democratic.

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