Order Description;

Required to develop a 1000 word formal analytical academic essay addressing:
? The pain experience for clients & care as a nurse
? Clinically inflicted pain and comfort
? Consideration of cultural norms
? Provision of comfort & care responsibilities as a nurse
To fulfill all requirements of this assessment item you will:
? comprehensively research the nursing literature to access the best peer reviewed evidence, including research articles related to your chosen topic and nursing caring
Australian Government Higher Education (CRICOS) Registered Provider number: #00212K
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? immerse yourself in the peer reviewed literature and consider the arguments posed by the respective authors
? formulate your arguments to analyse the nursing caring issues with particular reference to your chosen topic
? consider the implications for your future practice in nursing drawing upon your analysis of the issues
? substantiate all arguments using peer reviewed evidence
? fully adhere to the APA referencing conventions in your submission.

All information used for this paper needs to be supplied to me please. All must be Peer Reviewed. MUST BE EASY TO FOLLOW AND UNDERSTAND.

Answer;

Introduction

Pain can only be described by the individual feeling it. It contains the sensory, cognitive and the emotional aspect of that individual. Pain mainly occurs when the alarm system in the body sends a message to the brain in relation to potential tissue damage. Many perceptions and various understandings about pain are available and most people including nurses and other health professionals don’t have a real understanding about it. There is need for health professionals to understand the different aspects of pain in order to give effective and efficient services.

The Pain Experience for Clients

Understanding what a client feels requires the nurse to obtain information about pain intensity, location and the duration. The nurse should use various assessment tools for pain in relation to patient characteristics to obtain this information. The health professional should understand that pain sensation and expressions will be different among clients and also vary within the same client at different times. Actual sensation of pain should be based on data gathered which explains on how a particular expression is defined by the client. The management of pain by health professionals requires them to carry out culturally based pain assessments, which gather information a patient and his or her relative’s perceptions about pain (Cady, 2009).

Consideration of Cultural Norms

There has been an increase in cultural diversity in America due to the large number of immigrants such as from Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Culture has a significant influence on each sphere of life of all human beings and people will identify themselves in relation to a given specific group such as religious group, ethnic background, or geographic area. Culture has influence in the field of health including the prevention, control, treatment and the management of diseases. Research about pain in relation to cultural attributes is methodologically not developed due to lack of a clear distinction between race culture and ethnic backgrounds (Lasch, 2000).

Controlled case studies on pain have shown that the intensity for pain sensation is approximately equal amongst individuals but some cultures have a higher tolerance rate to pain than others. From cultures that practice stoicism, people tend to avoid screaming as an expression of pain. They always try to cover their faces and may prefer to be left alone and persevere as they fear being regarded as weak if they express their pain (O’Loughlin, 1999).

The development and understanding of individual variations in pain has many challenges due to differences in variables such as genetic composition, cognitive and environmental conditions. Differences in ethnicity also have significant genetic component observed. For instance, variations are noted between Jews, Northern and Southern Europeans and the African Americans. Studies acknowledge that differences in ethnicity have a contribution to the variations in pain. Ethnicity may also be projected qualitatively for instance Asians express pain from capsaicin application on skin while the Hispanic show an itch. Ethnic gender expectations also influence pain expressions studies show that manipulations applied interpersonally can alter tolerance to pain and discourage gender differences (Coghill, 2010).

Monsivais, & McNeill, (2007) describes a research with an objective of finding the influence of attitudes and beliefs of patients on pain medication used for treating nonmalignant chronic pain. This study showed that if the patient had a feeling that the benefits of pain medication were higher than the resultant side effects then they could risk taking it. The study shows the correlation between a patient’s level of concern with non-adherence and perceptions that the continuous use of pain medications may lead to future resistance thus possible ineffectiveness. Preconceived knowledge about when and how the drug works is also important as it can either make the patient to continue or discontinue it.

In a research conducted by Hiscock & Kadawatage (1999), many variations in nurses’ beliefs on the management and assessment of pain in the cultures of study were established. The United Kingdom nurses have confidence on a patient’s determination of pain levels. On the other hand, the nurses from Sri Lanka have a perception that they have the right qualifications and experience in determining the kind and levels of pain a patient suffers contrary to the patients’ opinions. There have also been instances where nurses valued patients’ satisfaction to treatment other than their attributes of pain.

Many studies have shown the disparities in treatment of patients from the minority groups but less have shown the differences in outcomes of pain through the application of the same treatment measures. Cultural identity involving patients suffering from chronic pain can be essential in provision of culturally accepted interventions for coping. Health research on cultural terms is a challenge as the definitions of culture will vary. Using culture and other socio-cultural attributes e.g. gender was used contextually in South Africa (Edwards, Fillingham, & Keefe, 2001).

Provision of Comfort and Care Responsibilities as a Nurse

Pain assessment and management may be challenging if nurses and patients are from different cultures. The provisions of health care services require health care providers to understand cultures influence on perceptions about pain. There is need to establish trust and attention to all other non-verbal expressions that show pain with proper management in honesty. The improvement of assessment and management of pain is a great advancement to clients with moderate pain with an experience to long times before an assessment (Ladek, et al., 2013).

According to Spurlock, 1999), Nurses from the emergency section acknowledges that pain has a great influence on the clinical and the client’s compliance and satisfaction to outcomes. Nursing requires knowledge about one’s self by the assessment of beliefs attitudes and the differences in cultural background. The nurse should have knowledge on pain, as it is subjective; he or she should use all available nursing processes in pain management. They also should know the standard of care by acknowledging a clients pain and providing all possible management services.

The nurse has a primary role in ensuring the protection of a clients welfare and health requirements. They have a great role in giving preference to the patient’s requirements and advocate with an assurance of effective and efficient pain management. Nurses should be consultative with other health professionals to ensure the effectiveness is attained.

In conclusion, it is evident that cultural background has an influence to pain perceptions of patients and will partly affect the reaction towards it. In the past nurses have been ignoring this with their culture influencing assessment procedures and interpretation of results pertaining pain experience for clients. Though professional experience dominates the response towards pain experiences, nurses have a big role to be advocates of the patient by collaborating with other health professionals and through the use of reasonable measures in alleviating patients suffering.

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