Order Description;

General Instructions for the Final Project:
Compose a 3- to 4-page essay in which you do the following:
• Analyze the three most important elements from the years between 1945–2000 ( VERY IMPORTANT) and how they affect you today.


o Choose elements from the following list:

o
? Scientific advancements and innovations

? Technological advancements and innovations

? Medical advancements and innovations

? Political policies (Global and/or national) Political documents/doctrines

? Global alliances

? Global economy

Outline how you believe these three elements will continue to have an effect (or if the effect might increase or decline) in the next 20 years and why.• Support your assertions by making at least 2 references, in proper APA format, to your course readings.Learning Resources

Reading
• Course Text: The Twentieth Century and Beyond: A Global History•
o Chapter 33, “Europe and the Americas in a New Era” (pp. 533–554)

This chapter chronicles the challenges faced by Europe and the Americas as they adjust to post–Cold War times.

o Chapter 34, “Asia, the Middle East, and Africa in a New Era” (pp. 556–574)

This chapter describes the struggles that ensured between nations when new democratic aspirations took hold and longstanding Communist Party ties monopolized other areas within Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.
Articles

Note: The following articles are available from the Walden University Library.

• Brown, L. R., & Flavin, C. (1999). A new economy for a new century. The Humanist, 59(3), 23–28.
Use the ProQuest Central database, and search using the article’s Document ID: 40688855
ability to sustain economic and social progress.

• Friedman, J. (2000). Globalization, neither evil nor inevitable. Critical Review, 14(1), I.
Use the ProQuest Central database, and search using the article’s Document ID: 82186433

This article examines how globalization is a topic that is here to stay at the forefront of the political alignment of both the Left and the Right.

• Ivanov, I. (2000). The missile-defense mistake. Foreign Affairs, 79(5), 15–20.
Use the ProQuest Central database, and search using the article’s Document ID: 58659619

This article reviews how, with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty at its root, a system of international accords on arms control and disarmament, sprang up in the past decades.

• Lee, K., & Dodgson, R. (2000). Globalization and cholera: Implications for global governance. Global Governance, 6(2), 213.
Use the ProQuest Central database, and search using the article’s Document ID: 54635813

This article explores the process of globalization and the impacts it has on dangers posed by health emergencies. It further explores a broader understanding of the historical and structural factors behind the health challenges posed by globalization.

• Monshipouri, M. (1998). The West’s modern encounter with Islam: From discourse to reality. Journal of Church and State, 40(1), 25 – 56.
Use the ProQuest Central database, and search using the article’s Document ID: 28457341
• Within this article, the author critically analyzes the viewpoints of several social scientists on Muslim issues.
• von Storch, H., & Stehr, N. (2000). Climate change in perspective. Nature, 405(6787), 615.
Use the ProQuest Central database, and search using the article’s Document ID: 55191194

This article examines age-old concerns about global warming ranging from expected benefits of climate engineering, to today’s fear of global disaster.

Answer;

Introduction

Around the 1890’s, American Press Association (APA) gathered together the “best minds” with an aim of exploring what was expected of the twentieth century. None of them saw the dark sides of the twentieth century, including world war one and two, the development of nuclear and chemical war heads and the stability of the natural world being threatened by emergence of global threats. The worlds’ population hitting a billion, and with them all struggling just to survive, was predicted by none. Belief in technology and human progress is as prevalent in writings today as compared to a century ago. Twentieth century achievements, which are beyond expectation, and include the development of jet aircraft engines, personal computers, and genetic engineering has bolstered the easy optimism of the commentators. This essay looks at an economy that is global.

Global economy

Despite advancing technology and emergence of an integrated world economy ending a pattern that is age-old, the problem may simply have become a global one. The Western economic model that is fossil-fueled based, centered on automobiles, that raised living standards so dramatically is in trouble (Brown & Flavin, 1999). They continue to assert that, if this were to be the global model, and if world population were to reach ten billion during the next century, as United Nations projects, the effect would be startling. Going by the American diet that is centered on consumption of fat-rich livestock products, the world’s population would require nine billion tons of grain. An economy can only be environmentally sustainable only if it satisfies the principles of sustainability, principles that are hinged on the science of ecology. According to the same authors, Industrial economies are not equipped for recycling and the huge materials used in this century have also generated massive flows of waste which is as old as settled life though the scale and toxicity of the waste production is unprecedented.

The complex makeup, the huge flows and the unparalleled waste that characterize this century have also wrought extraordinary decline of human and environmental health (Gardner & Sampat, 1991). According to the same authors, more than 19,000 kilometers of rivers and streams have been contaminated by mining in the United States alone, and logging contributes to habitat loss, which is a primary cause of the mass extinction of species that scientists believe is underway. They continue to assert that some of the 100,000 synthetic chemicals introduced this century are ticking time bombs that affect the reproductive systems of animals, including humans, a generation after initial exposure. Our efforts to get rid of the waste has boomeranged generating greenhouse gases, dioxins, toxic leakage, and other threats to the environment and human health. Towards reducing materials, we need to abandon frontier economics, which yokes economic activity to material use. This will require imaginative initiatives and leadership, restructuring economies to focus more on the delivery of services and less on the creation of products. This, they say, will extend the productive life of products and they be built for easy recycling (Gardner & Sampat, 1991).

Technological advancements and innovations

The first electronic computers were built in 1946 and by 1949, Popular Mechanics predicted that” computers in the future may have only 1,000 tubes and perhaps weigh only one and a half tons.” Today, however, the average five- pound laptop computer can process data faster than the largest mainframes available at mid-century. The growth of the internet has greatly surpassed the growth of heavy industry during its peak. The number of telephone lines leapt from 89 million in 1960 to 742 million in 1996 while subscribers to cellular phones rose from ten million in 1990 to 135 million in 1996. Households with television went from four million in 1950 to just under one billion at the close of the century, bringing the latest news and cultural trends to a global community.

Another major change that distinguishes the twentieth century is globalization which is the vast economic and information webs that now link together disparate parts of the world. That globalization subjects the First World employees to competition against low Third-World wages is a fact that makes potent political argument (Friedmann, 2000). World trade has grown to $5.86 trillion in 1997 from $380 billion in 1950 which constitutes a fifteen fold increase.

Scientific advancements and innovations

            There are three innovation clusters that have dominated American technology in the twentieth century. These are the internal combustion engine, chemistry and electricity and electronics, considering electricity and electronics as one cluster. United States unique geographic structure and endowment of resources has greatly influenced the advancement of two of these clusters namely chemicals and the internal combustion engine. The very long distances that goods and travellers had to cover within the United States gave an impetus to the adoption and development of technologies that could shorten travelling times and reduce costs in transportation whilst improving reliability in communication. Institutionalization of the innovation process is a distinctive feature of the 20th century American economy  (Mowery & Rosenberg 1998).

Conclusion

One of the first steps in redefining progress is to recognize that our generation is the first whose actions can affect the habitability of the planet for future generations. This has been a consequence of the global economy outgrowing the environmental support systems. Unless we also assume responsibility now, for the evolution of the global economy, the various short term investments in our children’s future may not amount to much. The principle legacy that we will leave to them will be a world that is deteriorating ecologically, declining economically, and also disintegrating socially. An environmentally sustainable global economy depends on a cooperative global effort. Stabilizing the world climate cannot be done by any one country acting alone, and neither can it protect the diversity of life on Earth. Poor nation’s need for food, cooking fuels, sanitation and other requirements that are basic, have to be met by the worlds’ affluent nations. This is if they are to be expected to contribute to solving long-term global problems such as climate change.

Reversing the last decade’s trends of rising international inequalities and shrinking aid programs is the biggest challenge. We can no longer separate efforts to build an environmentally sustainable economy from the efforts to meet the needs of the world’s poor. We need a new compass that is morally right. One that is pegged on the principles of meeting human needs sustainably, to take us into the twenty-first century, going by the trends of recent years. This would be hinged on the concept of respect for future generations

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