Paper details:

(My research investigate how to determine curriculum and the strategies to design a curriculum and the effect of the curriculum design on students) .. PS. You wrote my purpose statement about curriculum design


How to Determine and Design Curriculum and the Strategies Effect on Students Achievement

Problem Statement: What are some of the ways that a high school teacher can design and determine a reliable curriculum? What are some of strategic effects that students achieve out of well-designed curriculum?

Article one

Abdullah, H., Rahman, N. S., & Adnan, A. H. (2012). The Secondary School English Language Reading Curriculum: A Teacher’s Perceptions.

The article examines the challenges lack of proficiency in English language in Malaysian higher learning institution. The primary purpose of the study was to establish how English language teacher could help students develop positive perception of the language to improve ability to understand. The sample of the study involved are From 5 and a teacher with code “Madam B,” tutor teaching English language in a public school located at Sembilan. The method of collecting data involved a semi-structured interview conducted through an open-ended questionnaire. The participant was asked questions that aimed at establishing the teacher’s perception about the English Language Curriculum of Form 5. The study took a period of1 hour and 10 minutes. The researcher used the thematic analysis to analyze the interview. The researcher opted to read the transcript with a primary objective of identifying distinct categories of the teacher. An analysis of the data revealed that despite the fact that Malaysian English Language Curriculum was based on CLT approach, it is yet to accomplish its objective.

Personal Opinion

I am impressed that the approach and objectives of curriculum was comprehensive since it covered the four basic skills. The participant was familiar with curriculum specifications and portrayed the need to utilize CLT approach in English Language Curriculum. The study participant grew concern on how students and teachers displayed passive behavior on communicative class. “Teachers fail to engage in active communication but focus on preparing students to excel in their exams” (8)

Pertinent Thoughts and Ideas

The article raises some genuine information that plays instrumental role in designing a reliable English curriculum for my school. An analysis of literature review indicates that the process of developing curriculum should comprise of three levels namely approach, procedure, and design. Making informed judgment on teaching objectives, assessment of development work, and obtaining the feedback from experienced parties are some of the basics that should lay my foundations to my teaching objectives.

Article 2

Pennisi, A. C. (2013). Negotiating to Engagement: Creating an Art Curriculum with Eighth-Graders. Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research, 54(2), 127-142.


The article examines how participatory action could change classroom practice involving students and teachers and how the strategy can reflect understanding of arts and engagement between the two parties. Method of data collection included audio recording, pedagogical talks, and observation of participants. The study-included semi-structure interviewed that involved six students. The main objective was to determine student’s perception on a curriculum developed teachers and students. The study also included development of students’ self-assessment, written reflections, and finished art. The researchers used the constant comparative method to analyze the collected data. The study revealed that counterintuitive plated a role in encouraging students to make their course work revision. It also helped elevating student’s engagement in art class.

Personal Opinion

Findings such as embracing newly acquired autonomy, enhancement of thinking through short talks, difficulty realized in decision-making, and establishing primary factors leading to student’s disengagement formed my centre of interest. The study talked a number of issues that student teachers fail to include in curriculum that could help them develop interest in artwork.

Pertinent Thoughts and opinion

The article points out essential strategies that I could add to my project of establishing my curriculum. I must admit I found it fascinating realizing how idea centered strategies is superior to teacher centered. I have learned that integrative curriculum helps to acquire students engagement to subject. Definitely, I bought idea that adopting flexible structure will be of significant help to my students.

Article 3

Ritz, J. M. (2009). A New Generation of Goals for Technology Education. Journal of Technology Education, 20(2), 50-64.


The article examines the need to develop on how to come up with essential programs and setting goals for technology education in order to influence the teaching goals and develop curriculum. The primary purpose of the study entails generation of set objectives that would help guide process of developing instruction for enhancing technological literacy and developing curriculum. The participants include board members of International Technology Education association and executive committees of the Council of Supervisors, Council on Technology Teacher Education, and the Technology Education Council for Children. The total number of participants was 33. The method of data collection included voluntary participation notified through email. Researchers began the process of collecting kicked off using a letter and white paper sent to board members. The letter explained the need for participation while the white paper entailed essential information on educational goals and technology education. The study revealed that leadership of profession of technology education plays a vital contribution in creating instruction and program development.

Personal Opinion

Professional leadership entails that environmental impacts, ethical issues, and social description influence the utilization of the technology. In essence, majority of participants reflected that it is necessary to include social constructivism when designing curriculum

Thoughts and Opinions

The article lay out essential strategies on how to design curriculum using social and technology perspective. The article outlines essential objectives such as eliminating of jobs, loss of non-English languages, and status of a country’s economy. I think that the study included detailed information to my initiative of developing a curriculum that will best to suit my students in the sense that it entails way in which students would gain literacy through societal contest and situations that are more so practical.

Article 4

Kulo, V., & Bodzin, A. (2013). The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students’ Science Achievement. Journal of Science Education Technology, 22, 25-36.

The article explores how Web-enhanced inquiry curriculum reinforced by geospatial technologies helped students based in urban areas familiarized with concepts of energy. Participants of the study included students and a teacher. Students were graded as 108th grade. Methods of collecting data included classroom observation, conducting day-to-day reflective meeting, and pre and posttests. The methodology of the study included actual learning settings and formative evaluation. The study revealed that there were significant increases content of energy to the knowledge of students. The study established that geospatial technologies played a decisive role in enlightening practical issues and curriculum effectiveness when learning science.

Personal Opinion

The article included a number of curriculum framework ranging from assessments and aligning material with goals for learning, learning contextualization, student engagement, uses of geospatial technology, to supporting teaching staff in implementing geographical technology. In essence, the article enlightens the role of spatial thinking in helping students determine their career and life choices.

Pertinent Thoughts and Opinions

The aim of the article is very clear and objective to the study topic on developing curriculum. The article explains the need to promote spatial thinking and environmental science to help designing curriculum materials. I find the article quite useful in designing a beneficial curriculum for high school students that would diverse students. I buy the arguments and findings on how geospatial skills in the sense that it provides meaningful and relevant strategies to enhance student engagement in class work.

Article 5

Shawer, S. F., Gilmore, D., & Banks-Joseph, S. R. (2008). Student Cognitive and Affective Development in the Context of Classroom-level Curriculum Development. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 8(1), 1–28.


The article entails a study on teacher curriculum approaches that influence student cognitive change and their affective change. Data collection involved group interviews, teacher interviews, and participant observation. Teacher’s interviews entailed pre/ post lesson and general interviews. The aim of conducting interviews dependability and trustworthiness of methodological triangulation. The researchers used grounded theory to generate axial, selective, and opening coding. The study revealed that curriculum making and curriculum-development pose a significant impact on developing reading skills of students.

Personal Opinion

Students claimed that curriculum-transmitters are an ineffective approach in terms of motivating students. Some students claimed that using textbook only creates boredom thus preferred an approach of mixing. Students perceive that they are not able to learn familiarize with new vocabularies when teachers embark on curriculum-transmitters.


Pertinent thoughts and Ideas

I must say that the article lays out fact on effective approaches that teachers should considered implementing. The fact that researchers observed that principals and curriculum should consider inquiring teachers to identify, report, and address classroom weakness. I find it rationale that classroom-level curriculum could be a principal strategy that schools should consider adopting when developing curriculum.


Article 6

Keengwe, J., & Kang, J. (2012). Preparing in-service language teachers to design and implement technology-rich curriculum. Education Information Technology, 609–619.

The article entails how technology-rich curriculum would be influential to in-service teachers based in China for a period of three years. The research entailed two methodologies; video analysis and interview analysis. The purpose of the paper was to explore how Technology-Rich Curriculum could develop provide and develops EFL curriculum for English Teachers based in China.  The study revealed that new technology-rich curriculum plays an instrumental role in supporting in-service teachers. Additionally, the research reveals that curriculum designers should mind including English as foreign language when designing curriculum.

Personal opinion

With the advancement of globalization and technology, education systems should equally portray some changes such as enhancing quality of teachers .teachers play a big role in helping students join national schools. Modern technology such as computers, video, internet would create potential strategies in which educators could implement Foreign Language in curriculum. Technology can possibly provide students with adequate cultural materials and high quality communication opportunities.

Pertinent thoughts and Opinions

The article provides some of the basic strategies in which professional and teachers can implement programs that will support EFL teachers. The point here is that curriculum design should include new methods and technological skills when designing curriculum. There is need for students to familiarize with technological innovation that would enhance their chance to improve in classroom contexts.

Article 7

Penuel, W. R., Fishman, B. J., Yamaguchi, R., & Gallagher, L. P. (2007). What makes professional development effective? Strategies that foster curriculum implementation. American Educational Research Journal, 44(4), 921-958.

The article examines the effects of distinct professional characteristics about ability and knowledge of teachers during the process of implementing program. The study included 454 teachers as participants served by twenty-eight professional development provider, the professional providers were familiar with liner modeling framework. The study indicated that it is highly essential for teachers to learn how to implement programs from professionals. Additionally the study indicates that teachers need to an ample time to plan how to provide and implement program in the sense that I would promote process of implementing curriculum programs.

Personal Opinion

In the contemporary world, there is increases demand for professional to consider implementing effective programs. The classroom needs to embrace significant changes that would reflect ways to deal with challenges of attaining learning objectives. On a similar note, there is need to respond to the demands of curriculum reforms by allowing teachers adequate time to learn the curriculum.

Pertinent Thought and Ideas

A critical review of the article reveals some few strategies that teachers can benefit from implementation of curriculum reforms. The article explains in depth time factor and teacher learning approaches that would match contemporary learning objectives. As an English teacher willing to see a remarkable improvement in implementing reliable curriculum in my school, I believe that carrying an intensive research would be beneficial to design English curriculum.

Article 8

Hagay, G., & Baram-Tsabari, A. (2011). A shadow curriculum: Incorporating students’ interests into the formal biology curriculum. Research in Science Education, 41(5), 611-634.

The article discuses concerns of students on how curriculum has created rift between their lives and interest. The article stipulates that shadow curriculum raise the need for schools to embrace information needs and interest when designing high school curriculum fro biology topics. The study included 35-sample students. The study indicated that the national curriculum failed to address biological topics such as cardiovascular stem, reproductive system, and genetics. The researchers used a quantitative technique with the help of closed questionnaire.

Personal opinion

Curriculum becomes relevant with incorporation of cross discipline. There is genuine concern regarding how different students perceive some topics of interest. Apparently, there are those biological topics that male students prefer but girls do not like. Curriculum should be designed in such a way that it would be serve life interest

Pertinent Thought

Discussion in the article coincided with my personal stamen. I perceive that designing a curriculum that would serve long-term interest of students would be a wonderful idea. Thus when designing English curriculum for my students, I would defiantly bring the stakeholders to the subject matter. This way, I believe I am in a comfortable position to design a reliable curriculum for my high school students.

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