Order Description;

Choose a job you would be interested in pursuing to prepare for this assignment.
Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you address the following:
• Conduct a job analysis for your selected job using one of the job analysis methods and discuss how it could be used within an organization.
• Evaluate the reliability and validity of your job analysis.
• Evaluate different performance appraisal methods that might be applied to your chosen job.
• Explain the various benefits and vulnerabilities of each performance appraisal method.
Include at least two references.
Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Answer;

Introduction

The work normally involved cognitive and environmental challenges. The ecologists view out that, the work analysis should commence with the challenges the environment impact on works. On the contrary, the psychologists give significant support to constraints derived on goal-directed behavior by human cognitive systems (Vicente, 1999). Work analysis is done in order to determine the implications that a system design has. There is various work analysis that result in different assumptions concerning condition of the work. As a result, the variety of guidance for workers emerges. For instance the instruction-based approaches and constraint-approaches for task evaluation normally have different challenges for workers.  Therefore, analyst should provide a concrete decision on actions to be taken to achieve the work while considering the sequential order as well as the duration for completion. There are various types of techniques proposed to be used in the work place. To come up with the effective method there is need to determine the significant differences as well as the similarities.

Benefit-Cost analysis

The benefit-Cost analysis is a very crucial method for analyzing various jobs. This method is also used to analyze the Environmental health and safety. It is used in development of legislative and regulatory policy aimed at fostering the environmental health and safety. The use of benefit analysis helps to determine the trade offs or negative impacts that are intrinsic in making of public policy, in addition to making them more vivid.  Moreover, benefit-cost analysis enhances setting of priorities by agencies as well as promoting achievement of decision making. Benefit-cost analysis informed the process of decision making, including when the benefits and costs information is greatly uncertain. This uncertainty is normally seen in the regulations of the environment, health and safety (Arrow, 1996). The evaluators look at the procedures required for conducting the task.  In spite of many work analysis techniques, there are general ideal ways through which the job should be conducted. When analyzing the work, usually there are three levels involving in-put-Output, sequential flow and timeline.

Evaluate the Reliability and Validity of Environmental, Health and Safety Analysis

The economic analysis is very significant in developing mechanism and strategies that promote desired goal at minimal cost or externality. One-size-fits and command-and-control method of approach is often used in environmental health and safety. The economic analysis of the environmental health and safety helps to shed light on how to achieve the cost saving through the use of alternative approach or various approaches that are flexible for good performance (Arrow, 1996). However, Benefit cost analysis is also associated with weaknesses. It is not always necessary or very effective in planning sensible policy for the public.

The formative work analysis promotes the specification of the features of the model based information systems. The evaluators look at the procedures required for conducting the task.  In spite of many work analysis techniques, there are general ideal ways through which the job should be conducted. When analyzing the work, usually there are three levels involving in-put-Output, sequential flow and timeline. Input-Output level helps to determine the effort needed to perform the work as well as the output achievement after completion. Moreover, it helps to identify the challenges that are supposed to consider when choosing the action for implementing the course of action. The in-put – output process may ignore several processes thus giving out only very high product description of the work. Moreover, it is very difficult to conduct work correctly without considering the challenges. Another challenge is the space reduction function since there is hardly limit on the options of the appropriate action consequences  (Vicente, 1999).

The sequential flow determines the sequence order of the action that is temporarily required for the completion of the work. It can include alternative paths in the process sequence through which work can be conducted. The timeline helps to determine sequential order that is temporarily required to meet the particular task while estimating time duration for each action. It was commonly used in traditional forced line.

Evaluation of Different Performance Appraisal Methods that might be used for Analysis

Market-based approaches and the performance standards approaches are considerably best compared to command-and-control approaches since they meet the similar objective at very low cost to society.  For instance, market –based approach enhances the reduction of emissions that yield to acid rain. This approach is inexpensive compared to alternative that required massive power plants for installation of scrubbers. The evaluation of the risk in an organization helps to meet the current purpose and goals and enhance future efforts of maintaining safety in the workforce environment (Arrow, 1996).

Normative models prescribe the way the system should behave, while the descriptive models describe the behavior of a system when in practice. Formative models determine the requirements that need to be satisfied in order for a system to behave in a new, desired path.

There are various examples of normative approaches for work analysis which describe the rational benchmark and a normative that direct works on how to behave when are in different situations. These approaches include traditional human factor analysis, early HCL Goals, Tayloristic work method analysis, methods, operations, selection Rules (GOMS). Some researchers have pointed out that the workers hardly follow the normative prescriptions. The normative model is perceived to made assumptions that are not real on humans in the work place  (Vicente, 1999).

Benefits and Vulnerabilities of each Performance Appraisal Method

Sometimes workers may be given opportunity to make decision online on how they tend to perform their task. This shows that the instruction-based approaches of work analysis provide less discretion compared to constraint-based approaches. The approaches that give a lot of detailed guidance are associated with minimal human error compared to the approaches that have less guidance. The instruction-based approaches have minimal human error due to much details guidance, unlike constraint-approach that has little guidance.  Moreover, constraint-approach differs with instruction-based analyses according to different variability. The constraints accommodate wide range performance variability, while the instructed-approaches have very low variability in performer action. The difference between the two approaches brings problems on how the worker encounters situations in order to learn as well as ability to deal with unique scenarios. Work analysis helps to determine the work to be conducted by the worker. It can be used by designers for allocation of functions among workers themselves as well as between workers and machines. Some work is known to be performed better by machines as compared to workers.

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