Order Description;

The student is Asperger?s Disorder Zack, Age 8.

When directed by a teacher to work with peers, Zack escapes working with peers by disrupting the class

In this paper: Apply measurement, data display, and data-based decisions to effectively change human behavior.

Explain the process of measurement you will use to analyze your case study. In your explanation, take into consideration environmental variables, available resources, and behavior of interest relevant to your case study.

Remember, applied behavior analysts measure behavior to answer questions about the existence and nature of functional relations between socially significant behavior and environmental variables.

Select an appropriate form of visual display of behavioral data (choose from line graphs, bar graphs, cumulative records, semilogarithmic charts, or scatterplots) from which valid and reliable decisions are best analyzed in your case study.

Remember, the visual format you select should depend on the type of raw data you collect from your case study and the primary purpose of its evaluation.

Justify how the selected form of data display will best allow you to make data-based decisions for your case study.

Remember, the primary function of graphic displays of behavioral data is to communicate quantitative relations.

Take into consideration validity, accuracy, and reliability of data.

The paper is graded on: Selects an appropriate data display to communicate quantitative relations, given a set of behavioral data; measures behavior to answer questions about the existence and nature of functional relations between socially significant behavior and environmental variables.

Applies measurement and data display (graphing) to make changes in human behavior; relates measurement methods to the environmental variables, available resources, and behavior of interest.

Applies data-based decision-making skills to make changes in human behavior; applies graphic displays of behavioral data to provide a format from which valid and reliable decisions from raw data are best analyzed.

How to Organize Your Paper Use the following subheadings in your paper and format your subheadings in APA style.

Subheading 1: Measurement Process.

Subheading 2: Visual Display.

Subheading 3: Data-Based Decisions.

Other Assignment Requirements Written communication: Written communication is free of errors that detract from the overall message. APA formatting: Use current APA sixth edition style and formatting guidelines.

References: At least 3?5 scholarly resources, which should be peer-reviewed journal articles or other scholarly articles written within the past 5 years.

Length of paper: Approximately 5?6 typed, double-spaced pages. Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.

Answer;

Case Study Description

Case Study: Asperger’s Disorder Zack, Age 8

Asperger’s syndrome is a disorder where patients display characteristics of altered non-verbal cues and they have difficulties in socially interacting with others. This disorder came first into lime light during the 1940s when Hans Asperger experienced behaviors considered of autism in nature within young boys who were growing normally. The difference between Asperger’s disorder and other disorders grouped under autism involve the reduced severity of symptoms and the fact that language delays are absent. The young with this disorder show mild symptoms while their cognitive skills are not completely altered. Children with this disorder always want to interact with others, but the way they do it may be regarded as socially unacceptable. Diagnosis mechanisms presently have been enhanced, but distinguishing whether the prevalence is high or if detections have increased, is not evident.

Measurement Process

            For interventions of behavioral change to yield a positive impact within young children, all the parties involved should take part in the program with a positive attitude. Validation of the social environment is important in ensuring that questions of study are answered correctly. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a therapy proved to be effective in managing autism disorder and can be used in this study. The basis of this therapy is that the demands within the environment determine how people behave and this happens unconsciously. Consequences will determine whether a certain behavior will occur or not. In most cases, a behavior will become repetitive because of reinforcement and will occur only when a demand is placed ort influenced by a stimulus. For Zack’s case, the reinforcements need to be structured within right expectations in order for him to learn the resultant behaviors. This needs to be repeated accordingly in order to yield the expected results (Hanley, 2010). The type of measurement for behavior change will be based on frequency count whereby records will be kept.

Behaviors that are socially acceptable in Zack’s case include interacting with his classmates, reading and skills for adaptive living. ABA process will support Zack’s behavior change in different mechanisms including; teaching him, new skills in communication and social life, increasing behaviors that support social interactions, help in the reduction of behaviors that may interfere with normal peace and modifying the environment hence restricting the resultant behavior (Spreckley, & Boyd, 2009).

ABA focuses reliably on measurements and goal oriented evaluation of the behaviors observed. For instance, behaviors such as anger and aggressions, which are vague, should be redefined into measurable properties. In Zack’s case, aggression could be described as disrupting the class when told to work with the rest. ABA program should entail an illustration of what has caused an occurrence of a particular behavior. The components within the ABA process include selecting the behavior interruptions, specifying the objectives, provision of a method for measurement of the behaviors, coming up with programs that help Zack acquire new skills or reduce interruptions and putting up a continuous evaluation system that helps determine the impact (Spreckley, & Boyd, 2009).

Visual Display

            In programs focusing on analysis of behavior, the data of targeted population behavior is always recorded appropriately to effectively assess if the programs have a positive impact. The main reason for collecting and recording details is for critical analysis of the studied behavior. From this case study, the use of line graphs can be a greater choice due to its common use in behavioral studies because it clearly shows the progress. The validity, accuracy, and reliability of the data are important tools that need to be handled with proper care (Kahng, et al., 2010).

The three main properties within line graphs that should be interpreted include variability, the trends, and the levels within data recorded. Variability describes the spread of data from one another thus Zack’s behavioral characteristics after plotting on the graph can be described according to how variable they are. The variability of his behavior can be compared to the normal graphs of children at his age. The mean value of the data on the y-axis is used to explain if the behaviors are either at moderate, high, or low level. Trend describes which direction the data is taking; it can be described as decreasing, increasing or no trend within the data plotted. The direction, degree, and extent to which the data is variable importantly describe the effect of an intervention. These data are important in explaining Zack’s behavioral patterns and help in making the right conclusions (Kahng, et al., 2010).

Graphs, which present the data in visual format, are important and recommended for this study as they are easy to plot, interpret, and easily make conclusions. Using line graphs one will easily understand the information within it and the process of decision-making is speeded. Zack may be having various interventions with an aim of helping him change his behavior thus using line graphs will ease the analysis of data. Line graphs are highly significant in the examination of individual data that is the case for this study. It is important in analyzing the impact an intervention has on the individual and they can be used to plot both data before and after the intervention. The sole purpose of the line graph would be to show changes in behavior over a range of time.

Graphs are important in summarizing data and they easily show the association between the two variables of study; independent and dependent while they encourage analyses that are precise and accurate. The usefulness of the data will rely on reliability, accuracy, and validity. Validity of Zack’s data will be attained when focus will be based on a few relevant behaviors that are founded on the attributes of Asperger’s disorder including communication, social skills, and interactions with others. Accuracy is obtained when the measurements recorded are a reality of the events that Zack portrays while reliability will depend on accuracy and when the measurements are, the same if repeated.

Data Based Decisions

            Data based decision making involves a process of collecting, proper management analyzing and the proper use of data in making decisions that are meaningful. Zack’s behavior will be measured in accordance with a process. The process will mainly involve three parties including individual school, the class, and the whole school. Zack’s behavior will be studied and recorded over a specific period while outcomes are recorded on the line graph. It involves appropriate changes to the school systems and individual programs with an aim of changing the behavior. The factors that determine a positive decision making process involves; the accuracy, validity and the reliability of the data. The presentation of the data is important, as this case has chosen line graphs to present data because of visual display and easy comparison of data (Marsh, Pane, & Hamilton, 2006).

The collection of Zack’s behavior data should be taken accurately and be made available when needed in decision-making process. All appropriate knowledge should be provided to ensure that high value is attained and proper guidelines should be put in place to ensure that analysis of the data is easy. The school needs need an assessment in terms of safety, and the environmental conditions. The data obtained will help the management function within the school to set plans for action and their objectives. Through it, strategies are made where control and prevention programs are recommended and proper evaluation is attained (Spillane, 2012).

The data for the implementation of a supportive behavioral intervention program include; Tier 1 made up of school data on safety and actions of discipline, attendance and absence registers, Zack’s survey information and health data within the school. Tier 2 involve Zack’s disciplinary data and teachers data on the observed behavior while level 3 involve data from assessment of the behavior and Zack’s data in relation to the interventions provided within the school. Other information may be obtained from Zack’s parents, social agencies and health institutions that have attended to him.

The curriculum showing in detail all the skills that Zack is supposed to learn should be outlined while the mechanisms that these skills should be provided should provide full instructions. The social skills to be provided to Zack may include communication skills, anger management, and social interactions. Strategies to enable Zack to acquire the skills include creating an enabling environment that may help eliminate inappropriate behavior. The Tier 1 support intervention are necessary in helping Zack and these may include involving his parents in interventions, proper management in the classroom, continuous supervision and evaluation, guiding him on the proper instructions to follow and creating an enabling environment to attain this(Spillane, 2012).

Tier two support programs include supporting him academically, helping him acquire positive social skills, engaging the family in support interventions, coming up with proper disciplinary actions for him which excludes suspensions from school, help him acquire skills for self management and coming up with mentoring programs that help him catch up with the skills.  Finally the tier three support mechanisms involve helping Zack acquire community values, administering both intensive social knowledge and support in his academics and collaborating with other agencies within the community that may help improve his behavior (Marsh, Pane, & Hamilton, 2006).

Professional maturity and growth is an important aspect that positively helps implement behavioral support programs. It helps in ensuring that all the students are prepared and have the ability to learn in a peaceful manner. The school where Zack learns needs to maintain the use of professional teachers who have the experience in handling the disruptive situations caused by Zack. School management should be professional and skillful in guiding it to success. All processes should be data based and the teachers should acquire research and evaluation skills that help them in decision-making. Teachers should maintain equity, toleration of different cultures and proper classroom management (Spillane, 2012).

Conclusion

It is important to help Zack come into a normal status and interact with other students in learning with a peaceful characteristic. It is important to come up with a proper data based management plan that will help him attain customary values that will encourage social interaction and discourage interruptive behaviors. The best intervention program will help him attain satisfactory behaviors and all stakeholders should collaborate with a collective objective of making Zack socially acceptable within the surrounding environment including school.

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