Paper Assignment;Length: 6 pages (double spaced, 12 point Times font, one inch margins; stapled)Topic: “Lumière films, then and now” In Sarah Moon’s documentary ‘Lumière and Company’ (France, 1996; 88m), a group of international ‘art cinema’ directors reveal and reflect upon — in their comments and cinematic tributes — the significance of the 100 year old films made by the Lumière brothers.Focusing on at least 2 of these cinematic tributes featured in Moon’s documentary and at least 2 original Lumière films, discuss the relevance of the Lumière films from the perspective of the 1890s and from the perspective of the cinema of today. In your analysis you should draw upon: 1) the readings we have already studied that deal with the Lumières (Gorky, Vaughn, Gunning, Abel, etc) and 2) your own individual comparative analyses of the originals and ‘remakes’.Your paper must include:

A well thought out response to the topic. Before you begin to write do the following:

  1. a) Read the topic carefully and think about how you want to address the historical and contemporary relevance of the films.
  2. b) Reread the Vaughn, Gorky, Gunning sections (These are required reading, I have uploaded for you) on the Lumière films with the paper topic in mind.
  3. c) Review as many Lumière films as you can (this is link of Lumière films collection, take notes on them, and choose at least 2 that you would like to analyze in depth.
  4. d) View and study Moon’s documentary ‘Lumière

and Company’ (This is link for the documentary ), take notes, and choose at least 2 remakes featured in the documentary(it means choose two difference scenes in this documentary) that you would like to focus on. In choosing the films you are going to write on you want to make sure you have a clear reason for focusing on them: how do these films enable you to speak about/reflect upon/problematize the topic? You may of course also refer to comments made by the contemporary directors in Lumière and Company if they help to develop your own argument.

Some hints to keep in mind

  1. Avoid simply relying upon analyses of films that have already been made in class discussions (eg. Wind blowing the leaves in Baby’s Meal). The assignment is geared towards developing your own understanding and interpretation of a range of historical, theoretical, and filmic texts beneath the broad topic of the relevance of Lumière films. It is essential to view the films again and study the articles again if you want to develop a thorough analysis. Once you have chosen your Lumière films you need only refer to its title [in English or French] for me to understand your reference. As for the films you choose from the documentary, don’t worry if you can’t figure out who the director is; but be sure to give me a very brief summary or title of the film so I know what you are talking about (eg. For the first remake featured in the film you could just call it something like Modern Train). But if you know the director’s name (eg. Spike Lee) of course please use
  2. Avoid all of the following (needlessly summarizing film plots; digressing from the main point of your argument; simply listing features of the film as opposed to carefully selecting which features you believe are crucial to discuss in relation to your argument; using conversational language or resorting to evaluative judgments which do not contribute to the topic [this film is superior to that film because it used more complicated camera movements, ‘I love/hate this film because’ etc]; beginning paragraphs or sentences with the following [‘Another thing is that’, ‘Now let’s move to’, ‘With’, ‘Moving on’, etc].
  3. Reread everything in the syllabus related to writing assignments, including the warning about plagiarism and the penalty for handing in a paper
  4. Be sure to maintain a consistent system of referencing (quotations, footnotes, etc) in your paper if you will be using quotes from the Musser or Gunning (see below for instructions regarding correct referencing). In other words, if you use the MLA style of referencing, use it throughout the paper. The title of a film should always be in italics or underlined. The first time you mention the film you should include the director and date in parentheses, eg. “In this paper I will discuss Birth of a Nation (D.W.Griffith, 1915)”, or “In this paper I will discuss D.W. Griffith’s Birth of a Nation (1915).
  5. Always leave enough time to proofread your work before handing it in for spelling errors, typing mistakes and sloppy expression. Remember if you write a sentence that you know is not exactly clear, you can be sure that your reader is not going to understand it at all. Often the beginnings of a good point are killed by sloppy or imprecise expression. I encourage all students to use the Writing Center if you know that you need to work on your



How to reference quotes using the ‘Works Cited’ method


Although there are several academic systems for referencing another author’s work/words/ideas, the Works Cited method is perhaps the easiest to follow. Please use it if you are not yet familiar with a method for referencing.


  1. To begin, the first time you quote a phrase by another author you need to place it in quotation marks, followed by parentheses in which you write: a) the name of the author, b) the abbreviated title of the book/essay if you are referring to more than one of her/his books,
  2. c) followed by the page number. Here is an example:

Benjamin argues that in photography “one encounters something strange and new” (Benjamin, “Short History” 202) that is entirely different from what one encounters in painting.

  1. The second time I quote from Benjamin, I only have to place the page number in parentheses, if I am not using any other Benjamin essay, and if I use Benjamin’s name in the sentence so the reader knows who I am referring to. Here is an example:

Benjamin’s assertion that photography opens up “the physiognomic aspects of the world of images” (203) is clearly illustrated in…

  1. However, if I was using two Benjamin articles in my essay, I’d have to include an abbreviation of which article I was referring to in the above case, or else my reader does not know whether it’s from the “Short History” or the “Work of Art” essay. Also, if I didn’t use Benjamin’s name in the sentence I’d have to place it in the parentheses so my reader knows who I am referring to. Here is an example:

The assertion that photography opens up “the physiognomic aspects of the world of images” (Benjamin 203) is clearly illustrated in…

  1. The second crucial element to the Works Cited method comes at the end of your paper, where under the title Works Cited or Bibliography you list the full references to each work you have cited in your essay. Each of your readings that you download from ICON should have full reference information on the first page. A full reference means it contains: author’s name; essay title; book title; editor(s); publication information (City: Publisher; Date). Example:

Works Cited ;Benjamin, Walter. “A Short History of Photography.” Classic Essays on Photography. Ed. Alan Trachtenberg. New Haven: Leete’s Island Books, 1980.

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